Wednesday, January 6, 2016

Letter from editor: near to the end

Dear reader:

This letter aims not only greet you and wish you the best in all aspects to this new year beginning, with future extension many years that the Lord allows you to live;
 But also let you know   that this year 2016  will be  the last year y of  edit  of the blogs you have the courtesy to read.  Open a reason for this?  I s not difficult to understand.

Ecclesiastes or the Preacher tells me that "everything has its time, and all that is under heaven has its time."  I think this ministry is reaching his time and I must prepare for this occasion.  This coming year I will fulfill 19 years working in the great commandment. But I must add that I personally did God promise regarding this ministry it means to serve.
 And "when you make a vow to God, defer not to pay it; because he hath no pleasure in fools. What you have vowed.

 And that I'm trying to do. This time let me tell you something of my life and great commandment:

 1). Come with my family to Australia on January 25, 1986. We received the Lord in late 1996 and in 1997 the Christian outreach program called the great commandment in order to bring the word of God to the hearts of the people was created by the dissemination of Christian preaching in Spanish.
By that time I sent a monthly average of 50 cassettes destined only to Lima, London, Miami and Madrid
a cassette magazine named Mana who had the same structure of the magazine Reader's Digest with reflections, music, stories and humor also created.
After a few years of working with the tapes, they began to not be used by many people and the attempted use of the CD  by functional and economic reasons they will not be used in ministry.

2). Gave way to another phase of ministry using the Internet for the dissemination of the biblical message more effectively using personal addresses that was  getting as strategic and functional. Studies 500 people sent fortnightly.
3). After years of work was the need to re-switch the methods to reach a wider readership.
Thus, a blog was created for this ministry. Blogs the great commandment in Spanish and English and also narrative and stories in both languages
​​is formed,
 Mana being the precursor of this last blog.

Blogs began in June 2011; it has already working on them 4½ years.
The decision of this change was important and better in all aspects and especially on increasing readers.

50 people receiving cassettes, climbed to 500 receiving emails, and today the number of readers of the great commandment is 86.950 while 11,370 are readers have visited narrative and stories.

While the increase can be considered as a substantial readership, if this compares to the service time considering only the blogs overwhelms me a sense of dissatisfaction (own editor),
 Which is exacerbated by observing how millions of people continue others, in the entertainment world?  No wonder, because I do not compete, but rather accept the biblical truth that no one seeks God.
More cannot deny the tremendous satisfaction that I had to act as a social communicator as I can give God's message to many people in need spiritually.
The main reason for my solo work effort rests on the truth that without Christ humanity is completely lost. And only God's power can transform the human being, making born again.
 And under this condition, as a new creature, its contribution to world peace is guaranteed.
 I firmly believe that the Word of God available in the Bible is the most suitable and effective guidance for mankind.
We must also realize, just by reviewing the history of humanity, the further you are from God, the closer you are to the confusion and disorder of our existence.
For all this I meditate with you, I conclude that this final year will try to grant more biblical information to your spiritual growth. Just you remember that information necessarily is not knowledge, but it is accompanied with a little effort on your part to go to your Bible to hear what God the Father wants to tell us through the Word who is Jesus Christ with the help of the Holy Spirit. This means that when you dive into the pages of the Bible, the deity of God will be in touch. That is a privilege. Do you doubt it?
Saying that "no worse than management is not" he says.

 With affection
Ruben January 07/01/2016

Monday, January 4, 2016

History of our calendar

History of  our calendar
The calendar is a systematic account of the passage of time used for the chronological organization of activities. It is a set of rules or norms that try to match the calendar year with the tropical year.
Formerly, many were based on lunar cycles, lasting use in the Muslim calendar, the date of various Christian religious festivals and on using the week (corresponding to the four lunar phases, approximately).
At present, most of the calendars are for reference cycle that describes the Earth around the Sun and are called solar calendars.
The sidereal calendar is based on the Earth's motion relative to other different stars to the sun.

Before today’s Gregorian calendar was adopted, the older Julian calendar was used. It was admirably close to the actual length of the year, as it turns out, but the Julian calendar was not so perfect that it didn’t slowly shift off track over the following centuries. But, hundreds of years later, monks were the only ones with any free time for scholarly pursuits – and they were discouraged from thinking about the matter of "secular time" for any reason beyond figuring out when to observe Easter. In the Middle Ages, the study of the measure of time was first viewed as prying too deeply into God’s own affairs – and later thought of as a lowly, mechanical study, unworthy of serious contemplation.
As a result, it wasn’t until 1582, by which time Caesar’s calendar had drifted a full 10 days off course, that Pope Gregory XIII (1502 - 1585) finally reformed the Julian calendar. Ironically, by the time the Catholic church buckled under the weight of the scientific reasoning that pointed out the error, it had lost much of its power to implement the fix. Protestant tract writers responded to Gregory’s calendar by calling him the "Roman Antichrist" and claiming that its real purpose was to keep true Christians from worshiping on the correct days. The "new" calendar, as we know it today, was not adopted uniformly across Europe until well into the 18th century.
Has the year always started on 1 January?
In some ways, yes. When Julius Caesar introduced his calendar in 45 B.C.E., he made 1 January the start of the year, and it was always the date on which the Solar Number and the Golden Number were incremented.
However, the church didn’t like the wild parties that took place at the start of the new year, and in C.E. 567 the council of Tours declared that having the year start on 1 January was an ancient mistake that should be abolished.
Through the middle ages various New Year dates were used. If an ancient document refers to year X, it may mean any of 7 different periods in our present system:
1 Mar X to 28/29 Feb X+1
1 Jan X to 31 Dec X
1 Jan X-1 to 31 Dec X-1
25 Mar X-1 to 24 Mar X
25 Mar X to 24 Mar X+1
Saturday before Easter X to Friday before Easter X+1
25 Dec X-1 to 24 Dec X
Choosing the right interpretation of a year number is difficult, so much more as one country might use different systems for religious and civil needs.
The Byzantine Empire used a year starting on 1 Sep, but they didn’t count years since the birth of Christ, instead they counted years since the creation of the world which they dated to 1 September 5509 B.C.E.
Since about 1600 most countries have used 1 January as the first day of the year. Italy and England, however, did not make 1 January official until around 1750.
In England (but not Scotland) three different years were used:
The historical year, which started on 1 January.
The liturgical year, which started on the first Sunday in advent.
The civil year, which

from the 7th to the 12th century started on 25 December,

from the 12th century until 1751 started on 25 March,

from 1752 started on 1 January.
It is sometimes claimed that having the year start on 1 January was part of the Gregorian calendar reform. This is not true. This myth has probably started because in 1752 England moved the start of the year to 1 January and also changed to the Gregorian calendar. But in most other countries the two events were not related. Scotland, for example, changed to the Gregorian calendar together with England in 1752, but they moved the start of the year to 1 January in 1600.
Then what about leap years?
If the year started on, for example, 1 March, two months later than our present year, when was the leap day inserted?
When it comes to determining if a year is a leap year, since AD 8 the Julian calendar has always had 48 months between two leap days. So, in a country using a year starting on 1 March, 1439 would have been a leap year, because their February 1439 would correspond to February 1440 in the January-based reckoning.
What is the origin of the names of the months?
A lot of languages, including English, use month names based on Latin. Their meaning is listed below. However, some languages (Czech and Polish, for example) use quite different names.
Named after the god Janus.
Named after Februa, the purification festival.
Named after the god Mars.
Named either after the goddess Aphrodite or the Latin word aperire, to open.
Probably named after the goddess Maia.
Probably named after the goddess Juno.
Named after Julius Caesar in 44 B.C.E. Prior to that time its name was Quintilis from the word quintus, fifth, because it was the 5th month in the old Roman calendar.
Named after emperor Augustus in 8 B.C.E. Prior to that time the name was Sextilis from the word sextus, sixth, because it was the 6th month in the old Roman calendar.
From the word septem, seven, because it was the 7th month in the old Roman calendar.
From the word octo, eight, because it was the 8th month in the old Roman calendar.
From the word novem, nine, because it was the 9th month in the old Roman calendar.
From the word decem, ten, because it was the 10th month in the old Roman calendar.
How did Dionysius date Christ’s birth?
There are quite a few theories about this. And many of the theories are presented as if they were indisputable historical fact. The following are two theories that tend to be more accepted:
According to the Gospel of Luke (3:1 & 3:23) Jesus was "about thirty years old" shortly after "the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar." Tiberius became emperor in C.E. 14. If you combine these numbers you reach a birthyear for Jesus that is strikingly close to the beginning of our year reckoning. This may have been the basis for Dionysius’ calculations.
Dionysius’ original task was to calculate an Easter table. In the Julian calendar, the dates for Easter repeat every 532 years. The first year in Dionysius’ Easter tables is C.E. 532. Is it a coincidence that the number 532 appears twice here? Or did Dionysius perhaps fix Jesus’ birthyear so that his own Easter tables would start exactly at the beginning of the second Easter cycle after Jesus’ birth?
Was Jesus born in the year 0?
There are two reasons for this:
There is no year 0.
Jesus was born before 4 B.C.E.
The concept of a year "zero" is a modern myth (but a very popular one). In our calendar, C.E. 1 follows immediately after 1 B.C.E. with no intervening year zero. So a person who was born in 10 B.C.E. and died in C.E. 10, would have died at the age of 19, not 20.
Furthermore, as described in section 2.14, our year reckoning was established by Dionysius Exiguus in the 6th century. Dionysius let the year C.E. 1 start one week after what he believed to be Jesus’ birthday. But Dionysius’ calculations were wrong. The Gospel of Matthew tells us that Jesus was born under the reign of king Herod the Great, who died in 4 B.C.E.. It is likely that Jesus was actually born around 7 B.C.E.. The date of his birth is unknown; it may or may not be 25 December.
Why do the 9th thru 12th months have names that mean 7th, 8th, 9th and 10th?
September through December were the seventh through tenth months of a calendar used by the first Romans. Ancient historian and Greek biographer Plutarch, wrote in C.E. 75, about how they became displaced to two positions higher than their names would indicate.
Why does February have only 28 days?
January and February both date from about the time of Rome’s founding. They were added to a calendar that had been divided into ten month-like periods whose lengths varied from 20 to 35 or more days. A winter season was not included, so those period lengths are believed to have been intended to reflect growth stages of crops and cattle.
When introduced, January was given 29 days and put at the beginning of the calendar year. February was given 23 days and put at the end. Then, for an undetermined period shortly after Rome’s founding, months were said to have begun when a new moon was first sighted. At some later time, month lengths were separated from lunations and again became fixed. At that time, February’s original length was extended by five days which gave it a total of 28.
With affection
Ruben          January  2016