Wednesday, January 6, 2016

Letter from editor: near to the end

Dear reader:

This letter aims not only greet you and wish you the best in all aspects to this new year beginning, with future extension many years that the Lord allows you to live;
 But also let you know   that this year 2016  will be  the last year y of  edit  of the blogs you have the courtesy to read.  Open a reason for this?  I s not difficult to understand.

Ecclesiastes or the Preacher tells me that "everything has its time, and all that is under heaven has its time."  I think this ministry is reaching his time and I must prepare for this occasion.  This coming year I will fulfill 19 years working in the great commandment. But I must add that I personally did God promise regarding this ministry it means to serve.
 And "when you make a vow to God, defer not to pay it; because he hath no pleasure in fools. What you have vowed.

 And that I'm trying to do. This time let me tell you something of my life and great commandment:

 1). Come with my family to Australia on January 25, 1986. We received the Lord in late 1996 and in 1997 the Christian outreach program called the great commandment in order to bring the word of God to the hearts of the people was created by the dissemination of Christian preaching in Spanish.
By that time I sent a monthly average of 50 cassettes destined only to Lima, London, Miami and Madrid
a cassette magazine named Mana who had the same structure of the magazine Reader's Digest with reflections, music, stories and humor also created.
After a few years of working with the tapes, they began to not be used by many people and the attempted use of the CD  by functional and economic reasons they will not be used in ministry.

2). Gave way to another phase of ministry using the Internet for the dissemination of the biblical message more effectively using personal addresses that was  getting as strategic and functional. Studies 500 people sent fortnightly.
3). After years of work was the need to re-switch the methods to reach a wider readership.
Thus, a blog was created for this ministry. Blogs the great commandment in Spanish and English and also narrative and stories in both languages
​​is formed,
 Mana being the precursor of this last blog.

Blogs began in June 2011; it has already working on them 4½ years.
The decision of this change was important and better in all aspects and especially on increasing readers.

50 people receiving cassettes, climbed to 500 receiving emails, and today the number of readers of the great commandment is 86.950 while 11,370 are readers have visited narrative and stories.

While the increase can be considered as a substantial readership, if this compares to the service time considering only the blogs overwhelms me a sense of dissatisfaction (own editor),
 Which is exacerbated by observing how millions of people continue others, in the entertainment world?  No wonder, because I do not compete, but rather accept the biblical truth that no one seeks God.
More cannot deny the tremendous satisfaction that I had to act as a social communicator as I can give God's message to many people in need spiritually.
The main reason for my solo work effort rests on the truth that without Christ humanity is completely lost. And only God's power can transform the human being, making born again.
 And under this condition, as a new creature, its contribution to world peace is guaranteed.
 I firmly believe that the Word of God available in the Bible is the most suitable and effective guidance for mankind.
We must also realize, just by reviewing the history of humanity, the further you are from God, the closer you are to the confusion and disorder of our existence.
For all this I meditate with you, I conclude that this final year will try to grant more biblical information to your spiritual growth. Just you remember that information necessarily is not knowledge, but it is accompanied with a little effort on your part to go to your Bible to hear what God the Father wants to tell us through the Word who is Jesus Christ with the help of the Holy Spirit. This means that when you dive into the pages of the Bible, the deity of God will be in touch. That is a privilege. Do you doubt it?
Saying that "no worse than management is not" he says.

 With affection
Ruben January 07/01/2016

Monday, January 4, 2016

History of our calendar

History of  our calendar
The calendar is a systematic account of the passage of time used for the chronological organization of activities. It is a set of rules or norms that try to match the calendar year with the tropical year.
Formerly, many were based on lunar cycles, lasting use in the Muslim calendar, the date of various Christian religious festivals and on using the week (corresponding to the four lunar phases, approximately).
At present, most of the calendars are for reference cycle that describes the Earth around the Sun and are called solar calendars.
The sidereal calendar is based on the Earth's motion relative to other different stars to the sun.

Before today’s Gregorian calendar was adopted, the older Julian calendar was used. It was admirably close to the actual length of the year, as it turns out, but the Julian calendar was not so perfect that it didn’t slowly shift off track over the following centuries. But, hundreds of years later, monks were the only ones with any free time for scholarly pursuits – and they were discouraged from thinking about the matter of "secular time" for any reason beyond figuring out when to observe Easter. In the Middle Ages, the study of the measure of time was first viewed as prying too deeply into God’s own affairs – and later thought of as a lowly, mechanical study, unworthy of serious contemplation.
As a result, it wasn’t until 1582, by which time Caesar’s calendar had drifted a full 10 days off course, that Pope Gregory XIII (1502 - 1585) finally reformed the Julian calendar. Ironically, by the time the Catholic church buckled under the weight of the scientific reasoning that pointed out the error, it had lost much of its power to implement the fix. Protestant tract writers responded to Gregory’s calendar by calling him the "Roman Antichrist" and claiming that its real purpose was to keep true Christians from worshiping on the correct days. The "new" calendar, as we know it today, was not adopted uniformly across Europe until well into the 18th century.
Has the year always started on 1 January?
In some ways, yes. When Julius Caesar introduced his calendar in 45 B.C.E., he made 1 January the start of the year, and it was always the date on which the Solar Number and the Golden Number were incremented.
However, the church didn’t like the wild parties that took place at the start of the new year, and in C.E. 567 the council of Tours declared that having the year start on 1 January was an ancient mistake that should be abolished.
Through the middle ages various New Year dates were used. If an ancient document refers to year X, it may mean any of 7 different periods in our present system:
1 Mar X to 28/29 Feb X+1
1 Jan X to 31 Dec X
1 Jan X-1 to 31 Dec X-1
25 Mar X-1 to 24 Mar X
25 Mar X to 24 Mar X+1
Saturday before Easter X to Friday before Easter X+1
25 Dec X-1 to 24 Dec X
Choosing the right interpretation of a year number is difficult, so much more as one country might use different systems for religious and civil needs.
The Byzantine Empire used a year starting on 1 Sep, but they didn’t count years since the birth of Christ, instead they counted years since the creation of the world which they dated to 1 September 5509 B.C.E.
Since about 1600 most countries have used 1 January as the first day of the year. Italy and England, however, did not make 1 January official until around 1750.
In England (but not Scotland) three different years were used:
The historical year, which started on 1 January.
The liturgical year, which started on the first Sunday in advent.
The civil year, which

from the 7th to the 12th century started on 25 December,

from the 12th century until 1751 started on 25 March,

from 1752 started on 1 January.
It is sometimes claimed that having the year start on 1 January was part of the Gregorian calendar reform. This is not true. This myth has probably started because in 1752 England moved the start of the year to 1 January and also changed to the Gregorian calendar. But in most other countries the two events were not related. Scotland, for example, changed to the Gregorian calendar together with England in 1752, but they moved the start of the year to 1 January in 1600.
Then what about leap years?
If the year started on, for example, 1 March, two months later than our present year, when was the leap day inserted?
When it comes to determining if a year is a leap year, since AD 8 the Julian calendar has always had 48 months between two leap days. So, in a country using a year starting on 1 March, 1439 would have been a leap year, because their February 1439 would correspond to February 1440 in the January-based reckoning.
What is the origin of the names of the months?
A lot of languages, including English, use month names based on Latin. Their meaning is listed below. However, some languages (Czech and Polish, for example) use quite different names.
Named after the god Janus.
Named after Februa, the purification festival.
Named after the god Mars.
Named either after the goddess Aphrodite or the Latin word aperire, to open.
Probably named after the goddess Maia.
Probably named after the goddess Juno.
Named after Julius Caesar in 44 B.C.E. Prior to that time its name was Quintilis from the word quintus, fifth, because it was the 5th month in the old Roman calendar.
Named after emperor Augustus in 8 B.C.E. Prior to that time the name was Sextilis from the word sextus, sixth, because it was the 6th month in the old Roman calendar.
From the word septem, seven, because it was the 7th month in the old Roman calendar.
From the word octo, eight, because it was the 8th month in the old Roman calendar.
From the word novem, nine, because it was the 9th month in the old Roman calendar.
From the word decem, ten, because it was the 10th month in the old Roman calendar.
How did Dionysius date Christ’s birth?
There are quite a few theories about this. And many of the theories are presented as if they were indisputable historical fact. The following are two theories that tend to be more accepted:
According to the Gospel of Luke (3:1 & 3:23) Jesus was "about thirty years old" shortly after "the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar." Tiberius became emperor in C.E. 14. If you combine these numbers you reach a birthyear for Jesus that is strikingly close to the beginning of our year reckoning. This may have been the basis for Dionysius’ calculations.
Dionysius’ original task was to calculate an Easter table. In the Julian calendar, the dates for Easter repeat every 532 years. The first year in Dionysius’ Easter tables is C.E. 532. Is it a coincidence that the number 532 appears twice here? Or did Dionysius perhaps fix Jesus’ birthyear so that his own Easter tables would start exactly at the beginning of the second Easter cycle after Jesus’ birth?
Was Jesus born in the year 0?
There are two reasons for this:
There is no year 0.
Jesus was born before 4 B.C.E.
The concept of a year "zero" is a modern myth (but a very popular one). In our calendar, C.E. 1 follows immediately after 1 B.C.E. with no intervening year zero. So a person who was born in 10 B.C.E. and died in C.E. 10, would have died at the age of 19, not 20.
Furthermore, as described in section 2.14, our year reckoning was established by Dionysius Exiguus in the 6th century. Dionysius let the year C.E. 1 start one week after what he believed to be Jesus’ birthday. But Dionysius’ calculations were wrong. The Gospel of Matthew tells us that Jesus was born under the reign of king Herod the Great, who died in 4 B.C.E.. It is likely that Jesus was actually born around 7 B.C.E.. The date of his birth is unknown; it may or may not be 25 December.
Why do the 9th thru 12th months have names that mean 7th, 8th, 9th and 10th?
September through December were the seventh through tenth months of a calendar used by the first Romans. Ancient historian and Greek biographer Plutarch, wrote in C.E. 75, about how they became displaced to two positions higher than their names would indicate.
Why does February have only 28 days?
January and February both date from about the time of Rome’s founding. They were added to a calendar that had been divided into ten month-like periods whose lengths varied from 20 to 35 or more days. A winter season was not included, so those period lengths are believed to have been intended to reflect growth stages of crops and cattle.
When introduced, January was given 29 days and put at the beginning of the calendar year. February was given 23 days and put at the end. Then, for an undetermined period shortly after Rome’s founding, months were said to have begun when a new moon was first sighted. At some later time, month lengths were separated from lunations and again became fixed. At that time, February’s original length was extended by five days which gave it a total of 28.
With affection
Ruben          January  2016

Monday, December 28, 2015

Terrorism God, men and System 3

Terrorism God, men and System 3
“The world is not threatened by the bad people but for those who allow evil”
Albert Einstein.

6. The Islamic state

(There is disagreement on the neutrality in the point of view of the current version title)

It is an insurgent terrorist group of fundamentalist caliphate proclaimed jihadist nature settled on a vast territory of Iraq and Syria. The group is controlled by radicals loyal to Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, self-styled "Caliph of all Muslims.
Technically, the group is organized as a non-recognized state, and de facto controlling several cities like Mosul, Faluyao Al Raqa, the latter being considered its capital.
Originally known as the Organization for Monotheism and Jihad emerged as a next terrorist organization Al Qaeda to deal with the invasion of Iraq (2003).
The caliphate claim religious authority over all Muslims around the world and aims declared unite all regions inhabited by Muslims under control, starting with Iraq and the Levant region, covering about current states of Syria, Jordan, Israel Palestine, Lebanon, Cyprus and south part of Turkey. Other militias that control of the territory in the Egyptian Sinai Peninsula, eastern Libya and Pakistan have vowed loyalty to the organization. The group is characterized by a fundamentalist interpretation of Islam and its brutal violence against non-Muslims and against which they consider false Muslims. In the territories that dominate the organization, imposing its extremist interpretation of Sharia (law), carrying out public executions and destroying temples and mosques.

7. Weapons

Daesh armed group calling itself the Islamic State (IS), commits crimes against humanity and war crimes on a massive scale in Iraq and Syria thanks largely to stockpile looting of the Iraqi army, formed by weapons manufactured in at least 25 countries decades of poor regulation of the flow of weapons into Iraq and lack of control of this trade, according to a report by Amnesty International (AI).
In a report entitled 'Taking stock. Arm the Islamic State ', AI explains, from the analysis of thousands of videos and verified images by experts, that fighters of this group used weapons (which were manufactured and designed in more than two dozen countries, including China, United States, Russia and the EU, from the Iran-Iraq (1980-1988) war.
"The large and varied range of weapons being used by the armed group calling itself the Islamic State is a clear example of how the irresponsible arms trade begins the perpetration of atrocities on a massive scale," said Patrick Wilcken, researcher Arms Control Security Trade and Human Rights Amnesty International.
By taking Mosul (the second city of Iraq) in June 2014, unexpectedly Daesh fighters seized weapons from international origin of the Iraqi arsenal, including weapons and military vehicles produced in the United States, which used to control other parts of the country with devastating consequences for the civilian population that lived.
Amnesty noted that the wide variety of types of weapons acquired illegally taken and has allowed Daesh perform "a terrible campaign of abuse", as unlawful killings, rape, torture, kidnapping and hostage taking of -a often at gunpoint - they have forced hundreds of thousands to flee and become internally displaced or refugees.
A dizzying array: The Amnesty report documents the use by Daesh of arms and ammunition from at least 25 countries, although a large proportion were originally supplied weapons to the Iraqi army from Russia, the United States and countries of the former Soviet bloc. These flows were financed with various weapons barter oil Pentagon contracts and grants from NATO. Most of these weapons have been taken or leaked from the arsenals of the armed forces of Iraq.
Among the advanced weapons that account Daesh there are portable air defense systems (MANPADS), and guided antitank missiles armored combat vehicles and assault rifles like the AK series, made in Russia, and the M16 and American Bushmaster.

Amnesty International says that most conventional arms fighters using Daesh date from between 1970 and 1990 period, and include pistols, revolvers and other small arms, machine guns, anti-tank weapons, mortars and artillery in While Kalashnikov rifles are common type of the time of the Soviet Union, especially Russian and Chinese manufacturers.
"This proves once again that measures risk assessment and mitigation in arms exports to unstable regions requires a comprehensive and long-term analysis, which should include an assessment of whether the units of the army and security forces are able to control arsenals and really meet the standards of international humanitarian law and human rights, "said Wilcken.
In addition, Amnesty states that Daesh fighters and other armed groups have also resorted to making their own makeshift weapons in crude workshops. Example of this practice are mortars and rockets, improvised hand grenades, improvised explosive devices (homemade bombs) such as car bombs and booby traps, and even reused cluster munitions, an internationally prohibited weapon. In some cases, explosive devices are landmines banned by the Convention on the Prohibition of Antipersonnel Mines.
"The Iraqi army endemic corruption and the lack of strict controls on stockpiles and monitoring of weapons involved the constant danger of such weapons being diverted to armed groups, including the Islamic State", adds Amnesty International.
Learning from past mistakes: So, Amnesty recommended "learn from the successive failures of the past" and take urgent measures to prevent further proliferation of weapons in Iraq, Syria and other countries and volatile regions, and called on all countries adopt a total embargo on the Syrian government forces and armed groups as on the opposition involved in war crimes against humanity and other serious human rights abuses.
He also proposed that countries adopt a standard of "presumption of denial" of arms exports to Iraq, which means that transfers could be made only after strict assessment of the risks, with a solid investment in pre- and post controls Delivery.
The President of the Security Council of the UN, Raimonda Murmokaité ratified ISIS fighting adding that the massive bombings continue and not end up achieving the goal of a US-led coalition in which there are countries that actively act , other equipment or facilitating its territory, and other contributing money.
8. The Allies
Other than the six already mentioned, about 50 nations help in the war ISIS, and some of them are, UAE, China, Jordan, Australia, Canada, Belgium, Italy, Albania, Poland, Denmark, Estonia, Kuwait, Spain, Ireland, Luxembourg, Bahrain and Panama.
So, 70 years after the end of the Second World War together again United States, France and Russia, the main allies with Britain expired in 1945 to Germany, Italy and Japan.
From the end of October, the United States dealt with ISIS 5,473 times, compared with 1,574 attacks by other coalition countries, including Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Jordan, Netherlands, United Kingdom, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Turkey and the United Arab Emirates.
Most of the air attacks of the coalition roughly 66% - were directed at targets in Iraq.
Russia engages in Syria:
Russia began its airstrikes against Syria this fall.
It mobilized fighter jets, attack helicopters and military equipment to Syria in late September and early October. The Russian navy also began to bomb targets in Syria in early October.
Russia said it was attacking targets ISIS, but the US and others said that many of the attacks reached the rebels fighting against the Russian Syrian government ally.
Does the air war is enough?
Critics of the campaign of the coalition have said that air strikes are not the least to defeat ISIS.
Nick Paton Walsh CNN recently wrote that it is an illusion to believe that there is a clear path to defeat the group militarily.
"The air strikes and attacks by special forces will eventually wear out the insurgents, as we saw in Afghanistan," said Paton Walsh., Adding that some Western military leaders came to see that "night raids against the Taliban were in fact very effective destroying the command structure and ensuring that there are very few leaders to calm the young insurgents in the struggle. "
But the timing of intervention in Syria was in 2012, when there was ISIS and Syrian President Bashar al Assad had no support from Iran and Russia, said: "Now things are different. Only they are. It's too late. "
In the United States, several Republicans have criticized Obama's tactics against ISIS for being ineffective, saying that air strikes will not defeat the terrorists.
For months, the United States has remained steadfast in his capacity not to send ground troops to fight ISIS.
That stance changed in late October when the White House spokesman Josh Earnest, said the United States was ready to deploy troops on the ground in Syria for the first time. The role of less than 50 Special Forces will advise and assist the rebel forces, he said. Troops help local Kurdish and Arab forces fighting with logistics and planning ISIS reinforce their efforts.
Some critics have argued that the US should send many more troops to fight ISIS, a suggestion to which Obama has resisted.
Kurds and Iranians
What complicates the view from Earth, at least for the United States and its allies, is the involvement of Iran. The country is advising militias fighting to ISIS, but there is concern that the participation of Iran could inflame sectarian tensions, particularly in Iraq.
Iraqi security forces and Kurdish Peshmerga in northern Iraq have been fighting ISIS ground.
CNN has been mixed with Kurdish soldiers, who have seen their difficult struggle has been hindered because their weapons are old and often do not have adequate supplies.
Volunteers Yazidis, a minority group that attacked ISIS in Iraq Sinjar district last year, also have joined in the fight for land.
The day of the attacks in Paris, said Kurdish forces had liberated the town of Sinjar ISIS control after a two-day offensive.

8. United Nations

The Security Council UN joined Saturday to claim the world the use of "all necessary measures" to end the Islamic State (EI) and the threat "unprecedented" arising from their positions in Syria and Iraq.
Unanimously, the fifteen members of the highest decision making body of the United Nations adopted Resolution 2249, driven emergency by France in response to the attacks on Friday in Paris.
"Faced with Daesh, have in common humanity. We, the peoples of the United Nations have the duty to defend," said the French ambassador, Francois Delattre. The text aims to "intensify and coordinate" the fight against terrorism, expresses the intention to expand sanctions against individuals and entities associated with EI and asked to do more to stop the flow of foreign fighters into the Middle East.
Despite his request to use "all necessary measures" against terrorists, the resolution does not invoke Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, which traditionally provides the legal framework for the use of force. It is, rather, a political action and an appeal form, according to France, to frame actions against EI within the international legal order and make clear the unity of the international community.
The document condemns the "harshest terms" the "horrendous terrorist attacks by the EI" in June in the Tunisian city of Sousse, in October in Ankara and shooting down a Russian plane over the Sinai and Friday in Paris as well as all other attacks by the group.
According to the Security Council, the jihadist organization "has the ability and intent to carry out more attacks" and represents an "unprecedented global threat to international peace and security."
Delattre today echoed the words of French President Francois Hollande, and said the Paris EI committed an "act of war" against France.
Faced with this aggression, the French government has an "absolute determination" to combat terrorists and seek to achieve "the broadest possible mobilization" of the international community in that effort, he said.
Although all members of the Security Council supported the resolution, this body has again in recent days show a clear split between the Western powers and Russia still exists around the Syrian conflict.
After France announced Monday that it would take the issue to the UN, Moscow presented another draft resolution with a broader based and another that tried unsuccessfully to push through the end of September character.
The main problem of this text was demanded by the "consent" of States to act against terrorism in its territory, which for France or the United Kingdom unacceptable supposed to boost the Syrian regime of Bashar al-Assad.
Russian Ambassador Vitaly Churkin, today backed the French initiative as a step to create an "anti-terrorist front" and insisted that this is also the intention of Russia, who has since September calling for a "grand coalition" against EI.
Churkin said he will continue to work for the adoption of Russian text and crossed the "attempts by some members" to block it as a "short-sighted policy".
A US-led coalition takes over a year to attack from the air EI positions in Syria and Iraq, while Russia began its own bombings in September, according as Russia began its own bombing in September, which the West has mostly hit other opposition groups, not just the jihadists.

9. majority country most often is irrelevant

On the occasion of the death of four Americans in Benghazi, Libya, a debate where the American journalist Brigitte Gabriel of Lebanese origin, president of CEO, gave a speech about the majority of Islam it is peaceful "but they do not address the agenda was held "
She is a survivor of Islamic terror and is very active in the exhibition about the dangers of radical Muslims. This is an adaptation from her speech: She said the follow:

I must start by saying that there are 1.2 billion Muslims in the world today; Of course not all of them are called radicals, as most of them are peaceful people. Radical Muslims can be estimated between 16 and 24 percent, according to the intelligence services around the world.
 This represents 75 percent of the Muslim population are people of peace. But in the Muslim population, 130 to 200 million are radicals, dedicated to destroying our society and Western civilization fanatics, and that is as big as the United States.
What worries marrow, is that 25% of radicals, because they are the murderers who kill without mercy, massacring, killing detonated, destroying the foundations and pretending roughing pumps our Western civilization.
If you look at what happened in human history many nations, we see their behavior.
Take the case of Germany, who are peaceful people; until the Nazis brought their agenda, which caused 60 million died, 14 million died in concentration camps and killed 6 million Jews.
The majority of the German people were peaceful, but this resulted mostly irrelevant.

Take the case of Russia where most were peaceful and yet 20 million people killed. Similarly most peaceful people turned irrelevant.
If we look at China, most people are peaceful, but the Chinese were able to kill 70 million people most were peaceful, but it was also irrelevant.
If we look at Japan, we see that most are people of peace, but in the Second World War unleashed terror on the part of South Asia, killing 12 million people. Most turned peaceful again irrelevant.

In America, the fateful September 11, 201, it took place at the time peaceful 2.3 million Muslims living in America; and yet only 18 radical terrorists, knelt to America were a series of terrorist attacks that day committed suicide in the United States by members of the Al Qaeda jihadist network by hijacking airliners to be hit several targets , killing nearly 3,000 people, producing more than 6000 wounded and the destruction of the World Trade Center in New York environment and serious damage to the Pentagon, the State of Virginia, being the episode precede the war Afghanistan and the adoption by the US government and its allies in the policy called war on terrorism.

With affection,
Ruben           December 2015