Monday, November 3, 2014

History:Inventions that changed history 1

Inventions that changed history 1

Here is a brief overview of some inventions that changed human life forever be.
They come in a parallel sequence to the advancement of humanity and without qualifying their degree of importance.
1. Music: There's nothing more universal than music. Consider, for example, that in history we cannot find a single culture that is not present.
  Topping our list, then there is no oldest human expression that perhaps it can date according to the Bible, "And Adam gave birth to Jabal, who was the father of those who dwell in tents and have livestock. And his brother's name was Jubal: he was the father of all who play the harp and flute.
Interestingly, Nietzsche said, "Without music, life would be a mistake."
2. Language: When does language come from? It is assumed that the first inventors of writing were the Sumerians who inhabited southern Mesopotamia. The first code writing appeared there in the year 3100 before Christ, and soon returns to writing invented nearly 1600 kilometers away in Egypt. The Bible offers this historical tale: And the whole earth was of one language and of one speech.
And they said, Go to, let us build us a city and a tower, whose top may reach unto heaven; and let us make us a name, lest we be scattered abroad upon the face of all the earth.
And the Lord came down to see the city and the tower which the sons of men.
And the LORD said, Behold, the people is one, and they have all one language; and have begun the work, and nothing will be restrained from them which they have imagined to do.
  Now, let us go down, and there confound their language, that they may not understand one another's speech partner.
So the LORD scattered them abroad from thence upon the face of all the earth, and they stopped building the city.
Therefore is the name of it called Babel, because there the LORD confused the language of all the earth, and from there scattered over the face of all the earth. (Genesis 11)
Maybe we cannot know much about the appearance and   use of language, but it seems that if we were to order the inventions according to their importance, it unquestionably would be seated first.
3. Writing: about 6000 years ago BC the Phoenicians, Sumerians and Babylonians recorded their facts and events by figures drawn on wet clay, this type of writing is called cuneiform, or wedge-shaped, because every stroke pressing was written on clay tablets then dried in the sun or baked. The line representing the drawn object, then it became a subject related to the same symbol, this stage of writing man developed, it was called ideographic.
The Egyptians used an ideographic script which was refined over time and was called hieroglyphics, thus writing helped them to make their entries in the temples, tombs and monuments. Later, the phonetic signs were used. But the thing is written to capture our feelings, ideas and dreams, and leave a record of our present is so, so important, maybe for some of us live without this invention not be worthwhile. Second place in the imaginary indisputable list of the most important inventions.
4. Numbering: We have from time immemorial. How many of us there are, how many friends, many foes, how many days have passed, what we get in the purchase, which was received in the sale ... when the count began long handmade
​​and not caught, the numbers were born. Hence, arithmetic, calculus, economics ... In end, our heavy reliance on numbers.
5. craft: Surely, navigation began the day a man climbed a tree to get away from the coast, and began building rafts, canoes, and other paddle-driven, allowing them to go farther. From prehistory and in virtually all cultures, have been building these boats, some of which are still used today. For ancient civilizations, the sea was a source of food and, therefore, lived near the coast. But the breakthrough was added to wooden boats, a candle as a propulsion system.
  The peoples of the ancient world, like the Egyptians, Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Greeks and Romans, among others, were consolidating and improving their boats as they tried to establish contact with neighboring peoples in order to explore, master and expand their business networks the Mediterranean.
  In the end, this invention led man to discover and explore new lands.
6. Maps: The art of cartography is very old, as the first map we know dates from the seventh millennium BC and correspond to the city of Catal Huyuk, Turkey today. The maps allow us to view the world in which we live, explore and thus, know better.
The oldest existing maps were made by the Babylonians about 2300 BC it is believed that the first map depicting the known world was made in the sixth century BC by the Greek philosopher Anaximander. It had a circular shape and showed the known world grouped around the Aegean Sea and surrounded by the ocean. One of the most famous maps of the classical period was drawn up by the Greek geographer Eratosthenes around 200 BC it is considered that the map made in 1507 by Martin Waldseemüller, a German geographer, was the first to designate the name of America to the newly discovered lands Transatlantic. The Latin name is a tribute to the work of Amerigo Vespucci, who began to draw maps of their travels around the continent once installed in Seville (1508) in the service of King Ferdinand.

7. Brick. This small unit was built at least 6000 BC ; The humble brick clay, kneaded and baked piece of land, has been relieved or supplemented, over the centuries, by a long series of objects. The masonry, adobe and cob North European, are the most primitive architectural resources in the history of human masonry. The oldest brick courses known, prior to 7500 BC, were found in different archaeological sites in Mesopotamia. Likewise, dated between 7000 and 6395 BC, bricks are found in 1952 during excavations at Jericho, near the River Jordan.
In the ruins of Jericho two types of bricks were found: the first date from the period between 8300 BC and 7600 B.C. and had a size of 260x100x100 mm (similar to a loaf of bread). The other, finer, is called brick cane. The use of bricks shows that it was easier to transport to carry the mud itself to the construction site. The Bible records in Exodus 5: And Pharaoh commanded the same day the taskmasters of the people who had him in charge, and their foremen, saying, Hereafter ye shall no more give the people straw to make brick, as heretofore; them go and gather straw for themselves. And ye shall lay upon them the same number of bricks they did before, not diminish them nothing; because they are lazy, why cry, saying, Let us go and sacrifice to our God.

8. The wheel: We do not know exactly when it was invented. Whenever we talk about important inventions, comes to mind the wheel, as it provided the transport of people and cargo a classic among classics. Probably the wheel is one of the most important inventions in history. Virtually any constructed since the beginning of the industrial revolution machine pose a greater or lesser extent the presence of the wheel, so it's hard to imagine a mechanized system without the presence of the wheel or a symmetrical component moving in a circle around an axis .
Based on diagrams of ancient clay tablets, the first wheel on record was used at Ur in Mesopotamia around 3500 BC but although there is no archaeological evidence, it is believed that the front wheels could appear in Sumerian around 8000 BC, and its invention the result of a slow evolution of the combination of roller and sledge.

9. The key and lock: The oldest lock was found in the ruins of a palace near Nineveh, according to archaeologists who discovered, dating back four thousand years ago. It is estimated that around the same time as the Egyptians used wooden locks and keys. Only if you are really very, very detached, you will not understand why they are an important invention. What sets the key to the most ancient inventions is that the name of who invented it knows: Theodor us of Samos, was an inventor and sculptor from the island of Samos (Pythagoras is also a native of this island), lived here from the seventh and sixth centuries BC
The oldest lock found to date was found in Nineveh, Mesopotamia, and operation is the same as the Egyptian locks, found towards the 2000 BC that allegedly used a wooden instruments fitted with latches, bolts and keys even more rudimentary than those invented by the Greek thirteen centuries later.
So good old Theodore, can attribute that was the first inventor of the key and lock which practically know today, however as ensures that probably the best known ancient historian, Pliny the Elder, Theodore did not knowledge of Egyptian invention.

10. Glass: This was made for the first two thousand years before Christ and is one of the most useful inventions: it helps to protect us from the bipolar weather, as we use it in our houses and cars; it is also present in tables, lights, glasses, ornaments, Do you have any doubt about its importance?
Pliny the Elder (first century), in his Natural History, says that some merchants on their way to Egypt to sell natron (sodium carbonate), stopped for dinner on the banks of the river Belus in Phoenicia. As there were no stones to place their pots, they decided to use some pieces of natron. They heated their food, ate and went to sleep. The next morning saw amazed that stones had melted and had reacted with sand to produce a hard, shiny material, glass.
In fact, man learned to make glass long time before as vitrified enamels, faience. There are scores of necklaces and pottery shards made
​​from faience in tombs of predynastic period of Egypt, the Naqada culture (3500-3200 BC
the first objects of glass beads were manufactured or beads. It is likely to be Asian artisans who established glassmaking in Egypt, from where the first pottery produced during the reign of Thutmose III (1504-1450 BC.). Glass making in Egypt and Mesopotamia flourished until 1200. C. and then stopped almost completely for several centuries. Egypt produced a clear glass containing pure silica; were coloring it blue and green. During the Hellenistic period Egypt became the main supplier of glassware in the royal courts. However, it was on the Phoenician coast where the important discovery of glass blowing I to the century unfolded. C. During the Roman glassmaking spread throughout the Empire from Rome to Germany.2 At this time it was discovered that adding manganese oxide could clear glass

11. The paper: This, as we know it is Chinese heritage and was created by the eunuch Cai Lun in 105 AD To weigh the importance of this invention, it is sufficient to say that, without it, you could read this article. It originated in the East; the discovery is attributed to China. According to tradition, the first papermaking, in the year 105, was Cai Lun (or Tsai-lun), a eunuch in the court of the Chinese Eastern Han Emperor Hedi (or Ho Ti). The material used was probably mulberry bark, and paper was made from a mold of bamboo strips.
The oldest preserved part was made of rags around the year 150. For 500 years the technique of how to make paper was only in knowledge of China.
In 610 was first introduced in Japan and 750 in Central Asia. Subsequently, in the year 800, appeared in Egypt, beginning 100 years after its manufacture.
The Egyptians used the plant material in the manufacture of papyrus and goat and sheep skin for parchment.
Papyrus achieves between one and three meters high. The leaves are long and the stems are soft and triangular section. The bottom of the stem is as thick as a human arm. The pith of the papyrus was consumed boiled but its main use was in the manufacture of a papery material. In Europe, the role was introduced by the Arabs; the first paper mill was established in Spain around 1150.
The first example is a paper written in Arabic letter dating back to 806 which is preserved in the University Library of Leyden. Muslims improved paper production technique using materials such as cotton, linen and hemp.
With the passing centuries the techniques spread to other European countries. The paper could be manufactured in large quantities at low prices.
12. Tin: In 1809, at the request of the French government, Nicolas François Appert managed to seal vacuum food in glass jars. Just one year later, Peter Durand patented the English use of boats coated iron -hojalata- tin. Cans revolutionized the food industry to the extent that they allowed us to preserve our food longer, plus it helped to break the umbilical cord that tied us to the kitchen for hours.
13. The refrigeration. The art of cooling based on natural ice is very old and was practiced long before any heat engine constructed. There, before the first millennium Chinese writings. J. C. describing religious ceremonies to fill and empty in winter ice cellars summer. The ancient Romans used the ice from the mountains and the Arabs
Camel caravans transporting ice from Lebanon to the palaces of the caliphs in Damascus and Baghdad. The Greeks and Romans compressing snow isolated wells grass, straw and tree branches. The compressed snow turned to ice to be used in times of high heat. In 1756, William Cullen released the first chiller machine, almost 150 years later; General Electric produced the first home refrigerators. Is it important? Obviously: The fridge now we do not worry about water retention causing excessive salt intake, for what that food is kept sated.
14. Plastic: Formally, he created the first plastic Alexander Parkes, who gave a demonstration of this material called parkesine- -at the great Exhibition in London, 1862. Now, we invite you to turn to either side of your home or office and tell us : what place they found something that is not made of plastic?
Celluloid was made by dissolving cellulose, a carbohydrate plant obtained in a solution of camphor and ethanol. With him began to make various objects such as knife handles, frames and motion picture lenses. No celluloid could not have started the film industry in the late nineteenth century. Celluloid can be repeatedly softened and molded again by heat, so it gets the label of thermoplastic. . Most plastics are made from petroleum today. The raw materials derived from oil are so cheap and plentiful. However, given that global oil stocks are limited, they are investigating other sources of raw materials such as coal gasification

15. The typewriter: In 1867, Christopher Latham Sholes, Charles and Samuel W. Soule Gliddem patented the first typewriter that had commercial success. Although it has now fallen into disuse, it was wrote many of the greatest works of world literature. In addition, the work of fi ce was formalized and made more flexible. During the 1850s and 1860s many inventors tried to create a more practical typewriter, but none succeeded until 1868, when Christopher Sholes patented a machine. In 1873, E. Remington and Sons, Ilion, NY, produced the first industrial model. The first Remington typewriter, produced for the Sholes and Glidden American inventors, contained almost all the essential features of the modern machine.

16. Car:  The history of the automobile is very rich and dates back to the fifteenth century, when Leonardo Da Vinci himself did a sketch for a series of rudimentary models of transport on wheels. But if you recognize who was the creator of the automobile as we know it today that would undoubtedly Karl Benz. This German inventor created his first model and patented between 1885 and 1886.
   This, in the days running, besides being one of the most important means of transport in the world, an object of desire, infallible parameter of the purchasing power of a person, an inexhaustible source of contamination, faithful ally of man and woman in fi n, the car is here to stay.

17. The aircraft: : Who invented the airplane was not just one person but a team of two; these were the Wright brothers who owned a bicycle shop in Ohio, United States.
Were Wilbur and Oliver Wright, who managed to develop the first airplane in the early twentieth century; this is the first functional airplane, as sketches of dreamers, existed before in history, such as Leonardo da Vinci. That feat took place on 17 December 1903. The aircraft, called Flyer. Then Kitty Hawk (North Carolina State), since in that city, took place the first flight.
He had a motor based on gasoline and had four cylinders and 12 horsepower. The feat was performed in the United States. The aircraft came to raise ten feet from the ground and managed to fly for 30 meters. Who piloted the ship was Oliver.

  The first manned flight into a device that could be described as 'tickets' Clément Ader was made on October 9, 1890. The aircraft changed the world not only because they are the means of transport which can travel great distances quickly, but and because wars were not the same from its appearance. Remember Hiroshima and Nagasaki?
18. Cinematographer: This large recreation is owed largely to the Lumière brothers and his cinematographer, who patented it in 1894. A cinematographer is a machine capable of filming and projecting motion pictures. Officially his invention was the work of the Lumiere brothers in the late nineteenth century as the December 28, 1895 held the first exhibition with this machine. However, the invention of cinema itself as such must be attributed to Louis Le Prince in 1888 produced "Roundhay Garden Scene" with a duration of 2 seconds.
The film was born when converged finally explored two avenues of research throughout the nineteenth century. The first was trying to create the illusion of motion, the second goal was to analyze the movimientos.Al end of the 1880s, the two basic principles were achieved (to create the illusion of movement and motion analysis), and the idea of
​​cinema was in the air.

19. The Internet: In 1969, the first link of the network called ARPANET was achieved, the technical basis of what we now know as the Internet. E-mails, search engines, instant messaging sites for downloading audio and video, online encyclopedias and other tools at our disposal now have made some of us do not understand how people could live without the Net. While we could go back to the 30s, when the Belgian Computer Paul Otlet imagined and wrote about a radial library that could be connected to television viewers around the world through radio waves and telephone signals and messages of any kind that may people communicate, share information, and others, over long distances, is not usually mentioned only as a visionary who imagined it, but did not make a tangible contribution itself. In principle, the internet as we know it today was a generally credited to American Leonard Kleinrock idea engineer, computer scientist and professor of computer science at UCLA, who mentions it in his publication Information flow in large communication networks, in May 1961. A year later, in 1962, JCR Licklider, American computer scientist, gave their views on a possible galactic network and along with the contributions of other computer fellow named Robert W. Taylor, these 3 names managed to make a first idea of what would be the net, which later became ARPANET.
20. The compact disc:  The CD (popularly known as CD by the acronym is an optical disc used to store digital data, consistent format on any type of information (audio, images, video, documents and other data) . the compact disc or CD was invented by James Russell, a physicist who worked for General Electric and was very fond of music. Russell created the first CD in 1970, but in 1978 the project was sponsored by Philips and Sony
Russell once at his home and thought to improve the existing system of recording at the time. After reflections and studies, he devised a system for recording and playing sounds that used light.
The physicist was able to develop his idea by a photosensitive plate could make one micron in diameter with a light. The companies Philips and Sony developed the concept of the current CD.

In 1979, Sony and Philips have joined forces, and after a year of work, created the first CD: Not only revolutionized the music industry, but storage.
This series will continue.