Saturday, March 29, 2014

Geographical curiosities

interesting geographical curiosities
There are places, situations , among other things related to our planet that are unexplainable , making the Earth a unique place

Earth is the third planet in the solar system and the place where , until now , it is possible that life exists all types , thanks to its characteristics .
Meanwhile, geography is the science that studies everything related to the earth's surface, and the various territories, landscapes, places and regions, and their interaction and close relationship with the various social spheres.
This science has discovered so far things are inexplicable and therefore are true works of creation of nature.
A number of features that has our planet, somewhat curious yet extraordinary, making it a unique and amazing place.

1. The site with the shortest name on the face of the Earth:
This is Å ( in Spanish is pronounced as O) , which is a village that is part of the municipality of Moskenes , located in the Norwegian Lofoten Islands .
Formerly, the main activity was fishing Å , salting and drying cod , very typical activity in the region , today , tourism is the main economic activity of the region. Å is a Norwegian word meaning "river."

2. What is the world's largest city?
For the size of the area, Hulun Buir is the largest city in the world, as it stretches along 263 000 953 square kilometers.
Hulun Buir is part of the province of Inner Mongolia, People's Republic of China; forests, state parks, some historical monuments and museums are the main attraction of this place.

3. Countries surrounded by other countries:
Specifically addresses Lesotho, Vatican and San Marino.
Lesotho is an African country that extends no more than 30 thousand square kilometers; its population exceeded two million inhabitants and is located in South Africa. It was created by the British crown in the mid nineteenth century and gained independence in 1966.
The Vatican also houses the Holy See, is elevated to the status of independent city state, with an extension of 44 hectares and a population of 900 inhabitants. Emerged in 1929, after the Lateran Treaty and its highest authority is the Pope.
Meanwhile, San Marino is the oldest constitutional republic in the world. It is nestled in the middle of the peninsula; its territory is made up of 61 square kilometers and is home to about 32 thousand inhabitants.

4 . The deepest hole that man has not been drilled:
This is the well deep superpKola, which is located west of Zapoliarni, a Russian city. Well as such existed , has an area of ​​just over 12 thousand 262 meters below the ground, however , in order to study in depth, in 1970 some drilling was conducted by scientists from the former Soviet Union Soviet .
Kola is a mystery for researchers, since as says, they found a large deposit of hydrogen, the temperature was increased to one thousand degrees Celsius and even, some say human hearing terrifying screams so they nicknamed this site as “the devil's Hole." On economic issues, the project has been canceled.

5 . Hotter and colder sea:
The Persian Gulf, in addition to having been the scene of many historical events, also keeps a physical property, which makes it a special place. It is located between Iran and the Arabian Peninsula, is shallow (no more than 30 meters) and is widely coarse as to marine life is concerned. In summer, its waters reach up to 35 degrees Celsius, the highest of all the seas.
Just the opposite happens with the White Sea. This body of water is part of the Barents Sea and is located northwest of Russia, given its location; most of the year is cold. In winter, the temperature varies between zero and -2 degrees Celsius, while in summer the maximum that records are 15 degrees.

6. The longest mountain range on Earth:
A mountain range, also called mountain range, is a set of mountains followed each other, which can range in any direction. Most people believe that the longest mountain range is the entire planet, as said, the Himalayas or the Andes, which is a mistake.
The largest mountain range extension is called Mid-Atlantic Ridge, which runs north to south, from Iceland to the Arctic Circle. Its area is 16 thousand kilometers long and 800 kilometers wide. The highest mountain in this chain is Mount Peak, which rises to about two thousand 300 meters above the sea level.

7. A sea without shores:
The Sargasso Sea region shaped oval located in the Atlantic Ocean between the West Indies and the Azores, says On this site there is no wind and ocean currents; dominated plankton and algae, which form shallow marine forests and most strange is that this does not have sea coasts, as in all corners bordering water bodies.

8. The farthest point of the earth:
Mount Chimborazo is the highest volcano in Ecuador. Given the curvature of the earth, it is in this South American country where the terrestrial sphere undergoes a kind of bulge, so that the peak of this geographical relief is the farthest point from the center of the planet, about six thousand 384 kilometers neural point.

9. The deeper crustal site:
As explained, an oceanic trench is a place under the sea that has considerable depression, where the water depth is much greater.

The call Mariana Trench, which is located in the Pacific Ocean, is the deepest of which it is aware . This place has no light and it is believed that its depth is equivalent to almost 11,000 meters.

10. The flow of the Nile:
Historically, it is considered the most important river in the whole world, because it was the cradle of Egyptian civilization also is one of the longest in the earth's surface.
The Nile starts at Lake Victoria and flows into the Mediterranean Sea, a characteristic that makes it different from other rivers, because their water flows from south to north.

11. Large freshwater tank:
The largest lake in Nicaragua has an area of ​​8,240 square kilometers , and is known under different names : Indian tribes Cocibolca called him , but he is known as Lake Nicaragua and is connected to the Atlantic Ocean through the San Juan del Río South .
It is one of the largest reservoirs of fresh water in the world , there are about 500 in it islands, some inhabited and numerous species of fish.
The curious note is that dwell therein adapted to freshwater sharks.
It is one of the few freshwater lakes in the world where two species of sharks swim: the Bull and Sarda, whose natural habitat is salt water, but can stay up to one year in freshwater. Have also been found in the waters of the Mississippi and the Amazon in America and the Zambezi in Africa.
With affection,

Friday, March 28, 2014

Narration: My visit to Nazareth 2

Narration: My visit to Nazareth 2
Series: My trips back: By Ruben Vernal

that first day spent in the home of Joseph was great for me by the mere fact of having been welcomed by them as a guest of goodwill. After a few hours of talking and listening to tell my stories about my job as a merchant caravan had Patros such as Business Empire began to show me a mild sympathy. We had already eaten what Mary had carefully prepared. In the "table" of mats on the floor was freshly baked bread, olives, labneh - a sort of cheese - yogurt white made
​​from sheep's milk, Shakshouka - a dish prepared by frying onion, tomato and paprika chopped in olive oil , and eggs. Raw and roasted grain, beans and lentils, grapes and raisins. Plus there was unfermented wine. Adiv stayed with us that night. After lunch we had a nice conversation José began by saying that in a few days Jesus fulfilled 12 years and after - , as usual every year, go to Jerusalem to attend the feast of the Passover , and we'd like you to come with us .
And add - Adiv , is part of the family and will also come with his wife and children .
 I accept with pleasure trying to hide the emotions that made my heart beat faster.
I asked Joseph to tell me about the feast in Jerusalem. Ah he exclaimed is a very important holiday for Jews, so always an effort to attend and participate in our Jewish Passover is a religious event memory, which annually is expected by farmers, ranchers and people for other activities done. Everything is always associated with God. It is the oldest and most important festival of Israel. Easter is the “way of God “to save his people from slavery to freedom and take. The essential rite of the Passover dinner is family or brotherhood of lamb (a sign of God's compassion ) , unleavened bread ( misery suffered ) , bitter herbs (slavery ) and red sauce ( hard labor in Egypt ) . It commemorates the liberation from the bondage of Egypt, the joy of freedom gained and waiting for the saving coming Messiah. People throng Jerusalem and parents will promptly temple with its corresponding lamb to be killed in the “parasceve” (preparation) by a priest. It is a night of tribute and ' long knives ' or swords. But above all, night of hope in the final release to undertake the Messiah.
I told Joseph, I'm excited to participate in this event with you as if it were part of the family , so I would like to ask you to grant me the favor of giving the lamb that is required for the occasion Joseph hesitated a moment, but he concede my will.
Since it was a busy day we all went to bed.
Early the next day, Adiv back home, I went out to the courtyard to draw water, and I noticed that the side of the carpentry work shop was a small room lit by an oil lamp.
I peeked slowly and observe the young Jesus on knees praying. He e looked up and said - would you need anything friend? , I replied no, sorry I interrupted you -it's nothing, he say, and also was about to end.  Adiv needed help with his ass so I was already awake , and take to read one of the scrolls you gave  me-  I What  do you read ? I decided read Isaiah:  -  " I heard the voice of the Lord, saying, Whom shall I send , and who will go for us? Then said I, Here am I, send me.
And he said, Go, and tell this people, Hear ye indeed, but understand not; see ye indeed, but do not perceive.
Make the heart of this people fat, and make their ears heavy, and shut their eyes, lest they see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and understand with their heart, and convert, and be healed. "

- I was waiting for the opportunity to talk with you and to know you a little more, - I guess you 'I’ll be excited that soon will fulfill 12 years and then go to Nazareth for the Passover - If I cannot deny answered.  Went to me -Hadid and you do not know our traditions even let me teach you some things, (and was practicing his skills teacher skills); Continuous - the traditions are very important to the Jewish people because of their religious significance, are broadly related to education, culture and everyday life. The Jews began our religious devotion from early childhood, and turned 13, we are admitted as members of the community after presenting the synagogue to celebrate the so-called Bar- Mitzbáen . Meanwhile, the girls celebrate another called
 Bat- Mitzbá at age 12 in a private ceremony. Bone that I still need to wait another year. -

- Another thing that may surprise you , the young man continued saying Jesus is that we as  Jews do not celebrate anyone's birthday to be closely linked with pagan religion.
 That does not mean every one cannot remember my birth, but not held, but give thanks to the Lord.
Also the only birthday celebration mentioned in the Torah is for people who did not worship Jehovah. (Then I checked my Bible, the young Jesus meant (Genesis 40:20-22. Treating Pharaoh's birthday Joseph times. And when Herod's birthday was celebrated this command kills John the Baptist in Matthew 14:6-11).

 And finally , the future master - end by saying : The way to Jerusalem  make me very happy because I see my brothers in Jerusalem , James, Joseph, Simon and Judas , who are staying in the house of my aunt Elizabeth, and I see also his son John, my dear cousin. After the holidays   we back home with my brothers. We ended our conversation because there appeared Mary to tell Jesus that they needed to do a task, he got up saying, I enjoyed talking to you Hadid , later when I finish my obligations  we will continue our conversations.
. I was left alone but in my mind the figures of Mary and the young Jesus.
 Mary was of medium height , thin but and he looked strong because of the multiple work, long brown hair , torn brown eyes , dark skin due to the effect of the sun , he looked very sober with some beauty , was friendly sweet and very firm time.  I calculated 27 years old.
Jesus was about to turn 12 and for his age he looked tall, thin dark brown hair and brown eyes too slanted, dark hair and short something. He was very talkative.
He looked very smart for his orderly conversation full of both cultural knowledge and traditional. At times it was thoughtful and reflective, but he almost always looked like a boy over the area. But he was much more than any teenager.
Joseph was about 28 years old, as I said earlier was tall strongly built , tall with dark eyes , dark hair, beard, sunburned skin , little serious look less  talkative , very polite and firm as a leader in his home .

Some day after I asked Jesus to show me around his house  and towns and some of the natural landscape  .  First ask your parents if they needed it for a few hours, so after consent, we went to visit the town. I untie two asses to make us easier to ride.
On the way, Jesus as usual, tried to teach me about the site's history and customs.
 As we went I began to realize that the Nazareth of Jesus was a humble village . We arrived at the entrance of the village, and while the animals rested,  we ate bread with olives and sat in the shade of an avocado tree . Then the young man resumed his remarks by saying Jesus - Nazareth in Lower Galilee region for its hodgepodge of peoples is considered almost pagan by Orthodox Jews and call that as Galilee of the Gentiles. And its inhabitants always maintained a certain independence from the religious - legal formalities established by the Pharisees. After a pause went on to say, Lower Galilee, separated from Judea by Samaria pagan, is a densely populated area with a high degree of urban development, and well connected. Through it ran two important trade routes.
We must therefore think that our citizens of Nazareth , despite this being a small town , living embedded in a kind of blooming metropolitan area on the west bank of Lake Tiberias or Sea of
​​Galilee , in the busiest commercial center of Palestine , as Nazareth apart  few kilometers from important cities like Sepphoris and Tiberias . –
Coincidentally, my parents told me when I was 2 years old was precisely in Sepphoris, Nazareth distant about five miles, where the famous Hezekiah ben Yehuda uprising against Rome took place. The response of the Empire was terrible. The uprising was drowned in blood, the inhabitants of Sepphoris were sold as slaves and more than two thousand Jews were crucified in the vicinity of Jerusalem.

 When we move a little note an agricultural area with a system of terraced vineyards, with watchtowers, wineries, oil presses and irrigation systems quite well done.
I mean you could say that Nazareth had a population of contrasts, as in our times.
On the way back we stopped to rest in a kind of inn where we ate and drank something. We sat in the shade and take the opportunity to ask the young Jesus - How have you
to be educated entrained so far? He thought for a moment and takes the opportunity to give me another lesson: -Hadid, to us Jews religion, law, history, ethical values ​​and education are inseparable whole. I learned to speak by listening to my parents, especially my mother in my childhood, they taught the rudiments of a statement that was primarily moral. For something is written in the scrolls of the Law: “Listen, my son, the instruction of thy father, and forsake not the law of thy mother, which are circlet of grace for your head and pendants for your neck ".
 I can not deny that instruction from them was often very severe where no shortage rod and whipping, the advantage of me. The use of writing is already common in Israel from a bye gone era.

In the synagogues also learned to write with a chisel using a wax tablets that could be used, deleting the text many times. But teaching is done mainly orally. The teacher and parent read a text and often recite it from memory, because to have rolls of papyrus or parchment is like having a treasure. It is not often that a normal, poor family like ours had them, so I really appreciate the scrolls you gave me.  In the synagogue of Nazareth oy Copies of the Torah of the prophets. A brief excerpt of the sacred text that is recited from memory, and then the teacher explains, clarifies doubts, asks questions and then starts repeating text that we repeat until it was fixed in the memory is read. The oral teaching, even though the Torah or law had written, Israel is the basis of education. Unfortunately there is also a large population of illiterates.
Personally checked what the Bible declares that the child grew and became strong, filled with wisdom: and the grace of God was upon him.
 After a month the young Jesus was 12 years, all at home getting ready to take us to the expected trip to Jerusalem. As I have much experience in travel for my line of work as a merchant, persuaded Joseph to leave the organization and at my expense.  Adiv travel with us and his wife and children plus two brothers with their wives and children.
Then the total rating was 9 adults and 7 children. Get two donkey carts, so I can travel more comfortable.  I was ready supply of water and food.
From Jerusalem to Nazareth’s about 140 Km or so. The journey from Galilee to Jerusalem could be done in a hurry, in three days. We no trouble at a normal pace would take us five days.
The cart would be very useful not only to bring back the brothers of Jesus, but also to Elisabeth and John, who wanted to be a few weeks in Nazareth. We left very early towards Jerusalem. There were two possible routes but we can take on the most direct descending into the valley of Megiddo and then stood about 600 meters through Samaritan territory to Jerusalem.

We passed through Galilee which is a very fertile area, with three distinct regions. To the north is the Upper Galilee, a frontier region with sparsely populated mountain refuges of bandits and criminals, down where the waters of the Jordan.
The Lower Galilee, with plains Yiezereel, is one of the richest in Israel, and two mountains: Tabor and Henán.
After we passed numerous villages and farming villages, to go Nazareth, where Sepphoris (capital of Galilee) highlights. The temperate climate is very suitable for the cultivation of olive, fig and fruit trees.
In the hilly part of the city of Nain Galilee, Nazareth and Cana are.
 A major shopping center in the famous caravan route to Damascus and Mesopotamia was Sepphoris, five kilometers northwest of the region surrounding the Sea of
​​Galilee to the Gospels also called " Sea of ​​Galilee " or Sea of ​​Tiberias The Sea of ​​Galilee, which is already at 208 meters below sea level, is 21 kilometers long, 12 wide and 40 to 50 feet deep, with an area of ​​about 170 km2.
After a few days we were in the territory of Samaria
It limits the north with the Jezreel Valley, east to the Jordan Valley, the northwest
mountain chain Carmelo, west to the Plain of Sharon and south by the mountains of Judea. Samaria today extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the Jordan Valley including Mount Carmel and Sharon Valley.
The topography of Samaria are not very prominent, its mountains rarely reaching over 800 meters high, and mountain ranges in the region are connected with those of Judea without a clear physical division between ambas.1 Climate of Samaria is benign in contrast to the bleak of Judea in the south.

Major cities in the region are the Palestinian towns of Jenin, Nablus (Shechem), and Tulcarén Calquelia addition to the Israeli city of Ariel.
(According to the Bible, the region known as Samaria was taken by the Israelites and the Canaanites was assigned to the tribe of Joseph).
Actually for us, this part of the trip was the heaviest since the march was all uphill, so we stopped to rest continually, water and food to animals. In parts of the way we got off the people of the wagons, to lighten the weight donkeys.
I always sat next to the young Jesus, because he always had an interesting conversation, and that often made
​​me think his arguments, especially when refuting some of my opinions to the extent that I could not add anything and would rather shut my mouth.
Each passing day surprised me more behavior and knowledge about the real way to have a relationship with God.

Think much about the journey Joseph and Mary sought the young Jesus cone if like any other Jewish boy in Israel.
I meditated thus:  Does Mary remember the regards by angel Gabriel that she was pregnant of Jesus?

And would remember what Elizabeth said when she went to visit her at her home , why am I so favored , that the mother my Lord should come to me?

Because it is undeniable what Simeon told Joseph and Mary were amazed, that would not die before he had seen the Lord's anointed.
I think after these thoughts, as they increased my love and respect for these two great people of God.
The boys were a little ahead of us, when we saw them returning euphoric shouting Jerusalem is already before us.

With affection,
Rubén March 2014