Tuesday, November 10, 2015

History:Isaac Newton

Isaac Newton

Newton, Isaac (1642-1727), British mathematician and physicist, considered one of the greatest scientists in history, who made important contributions in many fields of science. His discoveries and theories formed the basis of most of the scientific advances developed since his time. Newton was by the German mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz one of the inventors of the branch of mathematics called calculus.
He also solved the mysteries of light and optics, formulated the laws of motion and derived from them the law of universal gravitation.
Newton was born on December 25, 1642 (according to the Julian calendar then in force, on January 4, 1643, under the current Gregorian calendar today), at Woolsthorpe, Lincolnshire.
When he was three, his widowed mother remarried and left him in the care of his grandmother.
Over time, his mother, who was widowed a second time, decided to give a primary school in Grantham.
 Later in the summer of 1661, he entered Trinity College, Cambridge University. Newton received his bachelor's degree in 1665. After a break of almost two years to avoid the plague, returned to Trinity College, where he was appointed as an intern in 1667.
He received the title of professor in 1668. During this time dedicated to the study and research of the latest advances in mathematics and natural philosophy that regarded nature as an organism whose mechanism was quite complex. Almost immediately, he made fundamental discoveries that were of great use in his scientific career.
The method of Newton fluxions obtained in the field of mathematics its major achievements.
He generalized the methods that were used to draw tangents to curves and to calculate the enclosed area under a curve and found that the two procedures were inverse operations. Uniting them in what he called the method of fluxions, Newton developed in the autumn of 1666 what is now known as calculus, a new and powerful method that put modern mathematics above the level of Greek geometry.
 Although Newton was its inventor, he did not introduce calculus into European mathematics.
In 1675 Leibniz arrived independently at the same method, which he called differential calculus; publication made exclusively Leibniz received praise for the development of this method, until 1704, when Newton published a detailed exposition of the method of fluxions, overcoming their reluctance to disclose their research and discoveries for fear of being criticized. However, knowledge transcended so that in 1669 won the Lucasian chair of mathematics at the University of Cambridge.
Optics was another area for which Newton early interests. In trying to explain how colors arise arrived at the idea that sunlight is a heterogeneous blend of different rays-representing each one a different- color and that reflections and refractions make colors appear to separating the mixture into its components.
 Newton demonstrated his theory of colors by passing a beam of sunlight through a prism, which split the beam into separate colors.
In 1672 Newton sent a brief exposition of his theory of colors to the Royal Society of London. Its publication provoked much criticism that confirmed their suspicion publications so he retired to the solitude of his study in Cambridge. In 1704, however, he published his Optics, which he explained in detail his theory. Elementary principles.
In August 1684 Newton's solitude was interrupted by a visit from Edmund Halley, an astronomer and mathematician with whom he discussed the problem of orbital motion. Newton had studied the science of mechanics as an undergraduate, and at that time already had some basic notions about universal gravitation. As a result of Halley's visit, he returned to be interested in these issues. During the following two and a half years, Newton established the modern science of dynamics formulated the three laws of motion. He applied these laws to Kepler's laws of orbital motion formulate by German astronomer Johannes Kepler and derived the law of universal gravitation. Probably, Newton is best known for his discovery of universal gravitation, which shows how all bodies in space and on Earth are affected by the force called gravity.
He published his theory in Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (1687), a work that marked a turning point in the history of science, and also won its author losing their fear of publishing his theory  .La appearance of Principles also involved Newton in an unpleasant episode with the philosopher and physicist Robert Hooke.

In 1687 Hooke claimed that Newton had stolen the central idea of
​​the book: that bodies attract each other with a force that varies inversely as the square of its distance.
However, most historians do not accept Hooke's charge of plagiarism.
In the same year, 1687, Newton Cambridge supported the resistance against the efforts of King James II of England to convert the university into a Catholic institution.
 After the Glorious Revolution of 1688, which drove James from England, the university elected Newton one of its representatives in a special convening of the British Parliament. The following four years were of great activity for Newton, who encouraged by the success of Principles, he tried to summarize all his early achievements in a written work.
In the summer of 1693 Newton showed symptoms of severe emotional illness.
Although he regained his health, his creative period had come to an end. Newton connections with the leaders of the new regime in England led to his appointment as inspector and later director of the Mint in London, where he lived until 1696.
In 1703 he was elected president of the Royal Society, a position he held until the end of his life. As president, he ordered the immediate publication of the astronomical observations of the first Astronomer Royal of England John Flamsteed. Newton needed these observations to perfect his lunar theory; this issue gave him some conflicts with Flamsteed.
 Newton was also involved in a violent argument with Leibniz about the priority of the invention of calculus. He used his position as president of the Royal Society for a commission to investigate the issue and he secretly wrote the report of the commission that was in charge of plagiarism Leibniz formed. Newton even compiled a list of accusations that the company had published. The effects of the dispute dragged on almost until his death.
Besides his interest in science, Newton also was attracted to the study of alchemy, mysticism and theology. Many pages of his notes and writings, especially in the last years of his career are devoted to these topics. However, historians have found little connection between these concerns and scientific works.

With affection,

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