Friday, November 9, 2012

Narration: Egypt against the Hebrews: 2

Narration: The conflict in Egypt against the Hebrews: 2

Series: My trips back


 By Ruben Vernal

Eleazar looked at me and replied smiling face-  Abdon, it shows that even these confused with that of slavery which the Jews lived, because the situation is not similar to what occurs in Greece, and specifically in Rhodes that is where you live.
I'll try to be clearer now that you ask. I'm also a Hebrew slave cries out to God for my freedom.
But I had access to education and good amenities as you can see, which is why your initial confusion.
I am a descendant Enter the tribe of Ruben. When I hear my name on his lips felt more appreciation for Eleazar, because in addition to helping me on my trip, it was an excellent teacher and a man who instilled respect of those who tried.
Do you remember what I told you originally came only Jewish family of Jacob?
And it all started when in the land of Canaan was suffering from a severe famine, I do not know why this happened, and it is here where Jacob sent some of their children to the land of Egypt to buy food and avoid perishing from hunger. He and his brothers could not imagine that Joseph, who sold him to merchants, it would be the most powerful man in Egypt after Pharaoh. After becoming known to his brothers who had gone to buy food, he urges them to bring his father and to bring their belongings to settle in Egypt under his protection. Joseph did so and then met with his father and brothers.
The land assigned them sweaty to continue their work and raising farm animals.
But like I said before, to the death of Joseph's new rulers had ignored the protection over us, and peace and prosperity became poverty and calamity.
Eleazar continued: The first slaves came in Mesopotamia during the Sumerian era, although it was very limited. Here are a number of slaves enough to have some social significance but also economic. The slaves who come from military campaigns and conquests have no legal regulation on them. So are those collected by the slave traders and abandoned children who do have rights and protection of the state.
A free man also becomes a slave for a while to have to pay a fine for having committed a crime. I know that slavery as a social and economic especially where you come from usual, because Greece is a slave society "to be sustained economic base for this system, but this does not happen here in this way.
Here victorious military campaigns Through many slaves were brought as war booty, so did the abundance that were distributed to temples and individuals to be employed as laborers in construction and domestic service to the homes of the Egyptians.
In Egypt a slave has legal rights, so it can get riches, and receive a good deal, especially for domestic service.
All payment must be received as food and shelter, but also a certain amount of fabrics, clothes and oil, can buy land or kept by his master. It is documented in older papyri, some workers sold themselves, ensuring better living conditions. Another thing was the treatment they received at the hands of their guards for mines of Nubia and the Sinai.
Abdon Remember what told l you the officials Alexandria and you commented me? Corvea? About? I nodded. Exactly, right he replied that happens to those who cannot pay taxes with their harvest and they should do their job, physical so they should work for the Pharaoh.
 But let me explain what happened to us when we got to Egypt. Jacob's family came comprises only of 70 people.
First I said earlier that Joseph placed us in a beautiful area that was very suitable for agriculture and grazing animals. The Nile ever enriched soils and water scarce, and this place was called Goshen.
We were all under the regime continue Corvea. However, despite the importance of our  labor of peasants and herdsmen and other animals were neither we are now well regarded in comparison of the status of the other activities or occupations as craftsmen, masons and miners, soldiers, and obviously much Unless physicians, scribes and officials.
 In other words, the Egyptians like to eat well, but like most to them art, culture and big business, have always despised for being country people, among which we pointed us to be numerous.
 So I can say that this factor "little consideration" as useful and productive people, but our status as outsiders, attentive to our security, because they were always for "the Hebrews” despite having full generations people born in this land, and this inequality attempted against our community.
But the factor that influenced so we fell from grace was the domestic political factor.
Was extremely severe that no one of the leaders after Joseph remembered the extreme of not having a paper written by him in the papyri government, about which we should be "protected" by being peaceful   and working. People.
Of course this may be the explanation, that while Joseph was bought by Potiphar's slave, who was an officer of Pharaoh Amenemhat Nymaatra or Amenemhat III, who was the sixth pharaoh of the Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt and considered one of the great Middle Kingdom monarchs, but  Joseph was still remembered as the Hebrew.
But beyond that, then Joseph became governor of Egypt for being Hebrew assumes that his name did not figure in the archives of the government papyri.
I listened to Eleazar, but my mind remembered what the Bible relates that Pharaoh (Amenemha) tells Joseph: "You shall be over my house, and according unto thy word shall all my people be ruled: only in the throne will I be greater than a. And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, Behold, I have set thee over all the land of Egypt. Pharaoh took off his ring from his hand, and put it on Joseph's hand, and made him in vestures of fine linen, and put a gold chain around his neck and brought him up into his second chariot ".
Back to what Eleazar said: Then time passed and Joseph died at the age of 110 years, and they embalmed and placed in a coffin in Egypt.
Eleazar continued his interesting talk by saying this: Friend Abdon, what followed was very unfortunate because meanwhile stood up a new king over Egypt, which knew not Joseph.
For a time there was peace with the new governors, but also came to power a large military called Tuthmosis III, who led at least 17 successful military campaigns in Palestine and Syria, and reached the Euphrates. Under his reign Egypt reached its greatest extent, with domains in Syria, Canaan, Sinai and Nubia all, plus effective business contacts. This pharaoh as everything looked good soldier and war was very controversial in nature, so that he saw enemies everywhere, and not only with neighboring countries but also with foreign communities that lived in Egypt for generations, where we are the most numerous.
Can not say that a specific government oppression of Pharaoh started our brothers but rather was a long and perhaps peaked during the administration of Ramses II, as his predecessor died very fast so did not have enough Time to order more work in the construction of temples and mausoleums. His short story is this:
Men-Ra-Ra-Pehty Mesesu or better known as Ramses I was appointed by Pharaoh Horemheb. The dates for his short reign are estimated for 1295-1294 A. C.
When Ramses took the throne and his son Seti was an older man who had the tasks of government and grandson Ramesses II had maybe ten years. Ramses died after ruling for a short period of 16 months. He was buried in the Valley of the Kings.
The matter worsened when Pharaoh Ramses II was proclaimed. Usermaatre Setepenra - Meriamon Ramesses or Ramses II of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt, who currently govern us; Ramses II was the son of Pharaoh Seti I and his Great Royal Wife, Tuya. It was not, as is sometimes assumed, only child, was known to have had at least two sisters and, apparently, a brother named Nebchasetnebet, who died before reaching adulthood, so Ramses automatically became the heir. From child lived military activity, as a member of a military family. During his reign Egypt enjoyed its heyday, thanks to the economic prosperity that favored the development of literature and science, and that allowed him to erect large buildings.
Ramses moved first court to Memphis before final transfer to Pi-Ramesses in the Delta. We do not know the reasons for pharaoh ventured away from Thebes.
During the rest of his reign Ramses developed an obsession to build huge temples and spectacular. Not only working to fill the banks of the Nile and huge beautiful buildings, but also usurped many of his predecessors, including his father Seti I.
 In his many years of reign, far exceeded in construction work to Amenhotep III.
In terms of construction perhaps most important of all the reign of Ramses II, and laying the foundations of Egyptian politics for hundreds of years, was the building of a new capital in the north, which was called Pi-Ramesses Aa- najtu (City of Ramses), built on what had been the city of the Hyksos.
My brothers worked hard in his plan of buildings and the construction of Pi-Ramses and cities Pithom and Rameses) and also used prisoners of war, military campaigns in Canaan as labor.
Eleazar stood up and he said good Abdon, I think it's more than enough information that I have given, and I see that you were right to write what you have heard. Now comes the stage of truth, which will not be very numerous, and you demand more of the year you tell me you want to stay with us. Your fellow travelers will: Bosen, Ephraim, Joseff and Levi. Everything will be ready in a week to leave bound for Memphis and Thebes.
As we had prior knowledge of the relative location of the main cities of the empire, I went to my notes I had with me, which were in Greek so my companions did not understand. I realized that for strategic reasons of my trip, my choice was positive reaching the city of Buto, as it was important to visit her for being known as one of the oldest religious cities of Delta. Also was near Alexandria, where I'm starting hiking.
(The territory it occupied in ancient Egypt consisted of a long narrow strip for the Nile River Valley, northeast of what is now Africa. (This river raises in lakes Victoria and Albert and delta-shaped ends in the Mediterranean Sea).
 Only 60 kilometers wide and 1,200 kilometers long constituted the fertile valley surrounded largely by the Sahara desert.). The territory was much larger. We were in the so-called Lower Egypt and we would go up to the middle and upper part of this territory.
Then my four companions and I prepare to leave this city for Memphis, Thebes and other cities among the cities that no lack of Ramses.
Would travel down the Nile and we will delve into the wilderness and also visit some pyramids.
The next day we went early to the port of this city.
 Bosen had already hired a large boat with rowers and food for the entire crew. While watching and sailing and transport system checked several things I already knew.
Actually, the  “superhighway” of Egypt was the Nile which is 5,840  kilometers s long. Everything from cereal to livestock, from the sarcophagus to the building stone, was transported by water. Only the best wooden ships were because it was a rather scarce. Most people, pedestrians and fishermen used and promoted the reed rafts with ropes for deep water. The Egyptians ruled their boats with special paddles mounted on the stern. The craft of boat building is very old. They have not yet discovered the iron and all the tools and plugs were copper or wood. The Egyptian models of boats placed on graves believing that would lead them to the afterlife. To navigate upstream, upstream, using large sails and sail downriver, collect the sail and paddle.
Actually Travelling the Nile was simple: to paddle north with the current, or sail south for the winds. And they do it since ancient times. And not only navigate the river, but also because they built fairway.
  So, Sesostris III built a canal parallel to the first waterfall to reach the country by boat Kus Historic Landmark listed on the Hebrew Torah scrolls. We arrived in the city of Memphis, which is located about 150 kilometers perhaps Alexandria and took 8 hours to get in against the current.
Memphis is the Greek name of this city founded the first pharaoh of Egypt, Menes. During much of Egyptian history, Memphis was the country's largest city and economic center of the kingdom, undisputed capital from Dynasty I to VIII, When other cities as Thebes, Pi-Ramses, Tanis and Sais boasted also be cities capital of the kingdom, this, was still known as the "Balance of the Two Lands", the most important center of the kingdom.
They informed me that Memphis is the largest city in the world until, at the time, and thought that can have more than five hundred thousand inhabitants.
 But this city and was losing importance, due to changes ordered by Ramses. Since the city was not the same as before the strategic policy changes ordered by Ramses governmental power that affected Memphis. They transfer the powers of government and the royal court to the new city of Thebes.
Sitting on a bench in a beautiful grove with water fountains that was located in the city center, Bosen told me that the pharaohs and rulers had all the political and military control but they thought that to have a better public administration required of workers in the kingdom and the reason for  remarkable invention : the public official.

Originally, this invention had good reason to be. The country stretching from Nubian to the sources of the Nile, in the interior of Africa. Pharaoh needed a caste of people ready and responsible could trust: people who  repre sents the  power in the most remote places of the kingdom. The bureau ¬ Democrat initially served the crown, but gradually became his undoing. The officials, who in the beginning given ¬ ban the country by order of Pharaoh increasingly inclined to act on their own. Finally ended up manage themselves and became one like octopus with many tentacles choking the country and exhausted his energy. They became an end in themselves, impose taxes on their own and considered hereditary office. The official status, origin institution as responsible and dignified conduct typically Egyptian, became a system of exploitation of the worst kind.
1.       Finally, employees who had long considered as   prince aspired to the crown.
 The pharaohs of the eleventh and partial ¬ also the twelfth dynasty emerged from these territorial princes. This was the situation in Egypt around the time of Ramses.
We were more than a month in this picturesque city. Its streets were spacious, full of pedestrians, storefronts selling everything and could buy up to fine furniture brought from elsewhere in Asia.
Their houses built with adobe bricks were trimmed both the walls and doors and windows. In the city center you could see the temple of Ptah, God of Darkness. In a sort of mall had built an alabaster sphinx, monolithic and of considerable size, and a statue of Ramses II that is over 30 meters high. Memphis is also the stage where you will find the famous necropolis of Saqqara and Giza, which were magnificent in structure and beauty.
The chosen site where pharaonic necropolis is emplaced on the left bank of the Nile, is because its location should correspond to the cardinal point west sector, they said, where the Sun God died every night.
While we remained in the city, we decided to visit some pyramids built in the desert. The pyramids are memorials to deposit the remains of the pharaohs.
Some 1,500 years ago King Senefru founded the Fourth Dynasty and started the construction of a pyramid in order to preserve his body in the afterlife and eternity.
After a failed attempt, Snefru succeeded in building the first pyramid in the area full of Dahshur, 70  kilometers  south of Memphis. Dashur also houses the remains of the XII Dynasty pyramid of King Amenemhat II and the pyramid complex of King Sesostris III, which includes the pyramid, a smaller one for the real wife and a gallery for his daughter's grave. Here Josef guided me and Levi, and use camels to and from visiting the pyramids. My guide told me that you were the Persians who introduced in the seventh century. C. the camels. These animals can now be slaughtered for meat to use, can be captured and domesticated, used for plowing or travel as a means of transportation. Fulfilled our time spent in this great city, we embarked towards Thebes.
From Memphis to Thebes had a distance of approximately 900 kilometers sailing on the Nile and perhaps crossing the desert.
For the journey to Thebes ship changed considering that the trip would be longer.
We chose a new passenger ship and cargo. They were different sizes, had in common the similarity between bow and stern, a square sail and oars. As anchor used a stone block and two long oars subject to stern rudder served. Made of acacia wood or cedar imported from Lebanon. Those sets are those of the nobility, and were used for inspection trips, troop movement or transport of goods, including blocks of building stone brought from the quarries of Upper Egypt.
This craft moved by oars and sails, but sometimes needed help so they are dragged from the shore by ropes.
Reviewing my travel notes knew that since my arrival in the city of Buto four months had passed, and perhaps takes me another couple of months to stay in Thebes.
I decided it would be good to shorten the time of travel or plan to arrive after the city of Rameses in time to meet and to contact with the Hebrew people who lived there.
As I wanted to know anyway the ancient city of Thebes, would double because a trip to go to Thebes me away from the city of Ramses, sail on the Nile without coming to this city and then return, as she is located in the Nile Delta and it is upstream Thebes in Upper Egypt.
Was weighing me a personal letter of Eleazar would serve cone sort of letter to me, that he hoped would facilitate the work I set out to perform beyond the acceptance of Aaron, brother of Moses.
This story will continue with my visit to Thebes and the city of Pi Ramses.

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