Thursday, October 11, 2012

Narration:The conflict of the Incas against the Chancas



Serial: My trips back
Narration: The conflict against the Chancas
 By Ruben Vernal
I have always felt the desire to explore the past, not because I did not feel comfortable living in my time, but I always unequivocally that what we know now, as any historical issue as being incomplete or altered by various circumstances. These may be a tendency to exaggerate or minimize involuntary successes or failures of others, and to be transmitted with a certain carelessness, both the error and truth, go forward in time, as the currents across the oceans.
And perhaps this is because the story is one of my favorite subjects, so I decided to make my first trip back selecting the time, the time and place of my next adventure.
The big advantage that I have to make what I hope is a continuing series of travel is that I do not require the use of modern commercial aircraft including the space already being planned next trading voyages to the moon and others. The desire of the people of tourism has no limits or restrictions, as is my case now. And I only want to my mind an important additive imagination and humor. What could be considered as a penalty or advantage, according to how you look at it, is that all my travels to undertake just as no one can accompany me, because all are always busy with the affairs of his own life, and are so caught up in themselves, and so live in family, really sometimes or in some cases just feel alone . Loneliness is useful but so is something dangerous, because the weather takes hold of you so that you run the risk of becoming more selfish than it already it is one on a whim. Loneliness is also interesting to have more time to talk to yourself, but this does not ensure that all of you know, and I think something will be possible but, if you let yourself.
But I'm not interested in studying me or anything like that, but to tell you will travel alone, try to explain or justify and roll gave the matter and began to compete with Freud.
What if I'm seriously considering, is that because it was my first trip back I may not much if not enough, and when the best equipped and daring by experience, then I will not put barriers in my quest to live in some of these time studying in my history books in my student days. And as far as being the fruit that falls from the tree matures, I can understand what you did not see before, then it will be history for me now and nothing will stop me.
I cannot deny that I face antagonistic situations, difficult to digest by the difference in cultures and other factors and especially want to stay in thought for some of the times you visit, and not wanting to return, therefore, many of which say that the former days were always better.
I think I am well equipped to undertake the journey, because nothing will stop me if my reason is powerful enough.
Also, my decision is fierce and I'm also intrigued by the things I can rediscovery and share with people my age, if I go back.
So I started to plan my trip actually declined to review the history of the world, they want to return time and place. We know that history is the set of events and processes that have been developed in the environment of the human being, from its appearance.
 And guess who is seen as the beginning of human history, the time when writing was invented simultaneously in different places on earth. This makes possible the existence of a means to disseminate and preserve more durable the knowledge gained. Writing in turn, has become a fundamental necessity since the advent of agriculture, stable settlements development and the emergence of trade. And this writing, my mind instantly appeared as a warning light and intermittent Quipus word, then, was already set to go where on my first trip back. I would go to the time in the world of Andean civilization, the amazing Inca Empire.
 Then I read something about them: In the Andean world succeeded in several phases which alternated kingdoms unifying indirect hegemony or domination by direct military with emerging regional powers exploiting certain power vacuums.
 The first of the great powers that seem to have dominated the region is one that is organized around Chavin. Once this core collapsed, was gradually consolidated power Tiahuanaco culture, which controlled most of the Andean world from a vast trade network, and had its counterpart in the city of Huari, located near the Ocean Pacific. Tiahuanaco culture was a pre-Inca civilization during its period of greatest expansion was distributed in part of what are now Bolivia, Chile and Peru. It included most of the highland plateau of Collao called to the coast of the Pacific Ocean in the west and the east Chapare. Its capital and largest religious center was the city of Tiwanaku, located on the banks of the river Tiwanaku in the present department of La Paz in Bolivia. Other relevant powers throughout the history of the Andean world are the realm of the Moche, Paracas, Nazca and Chimu. The Andean cultural influence went beyond all this, come to the current Peruvian borders, and spread to Chile in one direction, and to Colombia in the other. In Chile emerged urban cultures such as the Atacama and diaguitas. In Colombia, meanwhile, prospered the Muisca culture, soon met in military domains, being Zipa Bacatá of the most powerful of all.
In the fifteenth century, in the Valley of Cuzco, consolidated the military power of the Quechua. Their king the Inca Pachacutec, who saved Cuzco being conquered by the Chanca in 1438, undertook a long series of wars against neighboring kingdoms, thus laying the foundations of the Inca Empire, his work was not only military, but also dedicated to build forts and organize the administration and religion, the latter creating for Cori temple court. The order founded by Viracocha resisted nearly a century, until in 1527, civil war devastated the Inca Empire, imperial facing two nuclei: Quito, north, and south Cuzco.
The original reason for my choice to travel to Ancient Peru that had to do with the interesting way of telling by Quipos called, and I really wanted to have the opportunity to arrive at a more or less quiet time culture, say and power have the opportunity to meet the people responsible for preparing and managing Quipus famous, more so because it was not reached in times of war and conflict.
 Before going further I should clarify a priority. Along with the schools could go back in time and space, so it was given me to speak the language or the language of the people who would alternate and dressed in the fashion of the time, and have their hair cut so you can go unnoticed when he had to live with them, and although my appearance would be equal to theirs, just would not be free of diseases and dangers.
What I do keep my intellect to understand the components of their civilization and to accept their way of life, however different they were from mine, centuries later.
I was forbidden, way to be my first and last trip to criticize advice or suggest any form of thought, foreign to them and they were not caused by them, because it is impossible for the story itself of to change the course of events.
I went to my studio now become my staff undertook the airport and return.
When I woke up I had before me an amazing picture, it was very early, and sat in what seemed to me a sort of paved road trail or just for parts, and one side was the mountain and on the other over a cliff 500 meters, which was supposed to be down a valley, but walk a little farther, discard this option, hearing the distant roar of the waters of a river is not very mighty. Carefully I stood a few feet back from the brink to appreciate the charm of this nature with plants with prickly pear cactus green and yellow, as the trip was anything but tiring, was with all the energy to walk this road where I could lead, especially after such a breakfast that I had taken, as if the planet would be about to collapse. But to my surprise I stopped and realized I had not the slightest idea where it was in terms of geography, nor knew the exact time where it had gone.
I decided to look in my bag non woven alpaca wool guanaco but, if I had forgotten to bring my compass, and walked more forgetful lately, forgetting what I had forgotten, but not, I reached and I could touch and gave a sigh of relief. React and then I realized that by the time I had no serve as references to guide me, because I was only in that way the cold feeling of the place. Now I decided to continue along the path, but in what direction, would rise or fall by shadowing path? I decided to go up instead of down. I thought my choice logic, which despite being more tiring to climb down, the noise toward the river rolling stones suggested to me that for security reasons, people dwell in the highlands rather low because they're more discovered. So I undertook the climb up what looked like a trail than road and I thought that passing through those places had. One of the foundations of Inca imperial success was the efficient construction of nearly 28,000 kilometers of roads and bridges linking the capital with the various areas. The messengers were messengers whose mission was to bring the Inca orders and news to all regions of the empire. Running long distances and had a relay system which passed quipus, which were composed of nodes instruments of different colors and shapes to keep accounts and maintain the traditions and keep you informed throughout the empire. It was likely that this path was one of the routes of them, and I begged off, because if so could meet a Tambo, which they use to rest and where they stored supplies and food. I kept walking and I started thinking that I would name when I meet people and any bystanders. I chose "Purik" meaning walker on the Quechua language, and remembering my pre-trip research, think it was back to the 15th century more than 1,500 AD. I was lucky because this trail was the runners path because the distance I saw a sort of hut, which turned out to be a dairy. It was near night when I  get to this room, and found water in a tightly sealed ceramic vessels and protected, flame or dried meat jerky, dried beans and corn to soak, stone kitchen with dry wood, a bed of straw . I laughed with delight at this place and gave thanks to God. I slept very well, even though it was raining outside and very cold.
The awakened if it was not very nice, because instead of receiving a kiss from my beloved, I got a shovel in the miter that almost put me to sleep again, and opening my eyes I saw a small young Indian who seemed to my Aunt Antonia closet. The flat was about give me another blow, with what my trip was going to be in just the introduction. So yell! ima nispataq Maqay meaning Why you hit me? And I try to lift the bed, but I could not because he  stopped so hard, as if a giant crab pincers embrace me. When the Indian saw that I had mastered, then grimaced staring at his face as if to say if you move you bust! I understand. He was then gently letting go that I attacked him, and seeing my passivity, stood up and went to a corner of the inn, stood with his arms crossed and ask: hamunki Maymantataq?, Which is where you come.
The question surprised me, because I wonder who you are, so for him it was just one of them but foreign, which reassured me, more and obviously could not tell which actually came from very, very far. We observe calmer when I said came from Ariquipay. He nodded his head, and I realized  he knew where Icame from, and that this area belongs to one of their own smaller empire called Ontisuyo.
Then I told him to call me "Purik" and again nodded his head, telling me that he knew the meaning. Then he said, my name is "Kinti Kenti" because I am small. At this point we could converse fluently by the gift that I was given to speak their language.
Then  he said, we are in the midst of a war and I thought you were one of the warriors Chancas now besieging Cuzco to take the city and overthrow our empire.
Then he confessed that he was a young Amauta that by the circumstances of the conflict had other military functions. I was shocked to learn that I had before me a young master of the Inca culture. Then he said sorry I gave you the blow-and I even sore head I replied stubborn and I already passed. We will no longer be apart for a while and decided to go back there together to help resist the siege of chancas.
He prepared a coca tea and associated coal he had picked up some corn, and ate them with dried llama meat that I found delightful. It was still early, and that things had happened very fast, and said we would leave early Kinty dawn. After a few hours of being rested, decided to tell me what was happening with all the details, so I sat by his side ready to learn from previous and current events of the war against the Chancas  and began saying: Do you know who the Chancas ? I told him I had heard of them in my land but we do know is that they were the eternal enemies but they were always dominated by the Inca. He nodded his head again, and I add - and I'm afraid we cannot stop them for long. And they always lived continuous-scattered part of our own known as Colla yours (and I mean that seems to be related to the current departments of Apurimac and Huancavelica. Chancas continued that had a rural lifestyle, and were organized in small scattered populations and mainly located in the hills with their fields based on the lower platforms and between elevations ranging from 1,500 to 3,800 meters. Their settlements are usually walled. Continued adding his interesting talk chancas were actually a group of people who were in continual disputes, and have no centralized political unit of government under a regional leader, except in time of war, but if they had, he added, his Ayllus systems. Added after paused chancas are our rivals customary Incas. then he said, today we are fighting to recover a large part of the hosts the Chancas Cuzco, through the efforts of our current military chief and sovereign Cusi Yupanqui.
Then he added, - what happened was unfortunate  Huaca Yaguar and now we are paying the consequences. This is what happened, I said looking into my eyes and see in them their grief and anger, and went on to say: The chancas made sacrifices and ceremonies in Apurimac and were harangued by Astu Huaraca his shift manager, and a control group of Malma and Irapa, addressed the Condedesuyo, reaching even to Chacas, another group led by Yana Vilca Anti marched his, subduing the land of chiri guano, a third group led by Tomay and Asto Huaraca plus Huamán Huaraca negotiator is launched the conquest of Cuzco.
Urco Inca Viracocha and, together with a large group of Cuzco nobility yielded to the claims of the Chancas and practically gave a part of Cuzco.
Kinty added with a notorious example of embarrassment and annoyance, which led him to raise his voice and intensity of his story, saying-I should back up a little more to tell you something that fills me with shame, and resumed his story: Hatun TOPAC, cocha Huira named after Inca (Quechua: Wiraqucha INCA, 'the Inca cocha Huira'), was the eighth Inca ruler Manor. He took the name of Viracocha Inca because claimed to have had a divine dream with the god Viracocha.
During his administration won some manors, did some work in the capital (Cusco) and in the few provinces that had. He accepted the surrender and delivery of an embassy to Cuzco Chanca and escaped with their favorite sons, wives and servants.
After the murder of Huaca Yaguar was hard to pick an heir for many of their brothers and sons were killed by his side.
There was Huacaca Yaguar son, but was presented as such because it belonged to the same dynasty of its predecessor: the Hanan.
He conquered the manors of Yucay and Calca, Calca built there in his own palace. He received constant attacks and Guaya Ayamarcas quell successfully managed brands.
Improved agriculture and supplies Incas. Expanded groves and textile production, he implanted tocapus (geometric figures in the clothing of nobles).
He traveled to the kingdom leaving as Inca Aymara (vice-president) to his favorite son: Inca Urco. And decided to return to live in his palace to be permanently Calca Chulpi Curi, his second wife whom he loved more fervently than any other.
During his rule, the powerful Chancas sent two emissaries requesting their surrender and unconditional surrender of their domains, including Cusco, this accepted and Chita escaped with his servants, wives and children.
After his surrender and escape with his son Urco Inca, Cusco leaves the generating uncertainty and confusion, as their flight and surrender were unexpected.
Kinty finished his story and said exuberantly,! Now Cusi Yupanqui, another son of Viracocha leads the resistance! , With the help of Vilca Quirao, ApoQuuiescachi, Urco Guaranga, and I'll take you convince other neighboring districts to attend in military aid in exchange for giving them many privileges if defeated and expelled from the miserable chancas Cuzco. Back to Cuzco, having enlisted the help given to me, to enter this Tambo, I ran into you, and if our gods have placed in my path now must be to not be alone in my return and we help support the strength of the invader Cuzco.
After Kinty finished speaking and moved to take a little water, I was in awe of what he had heard, and perplexed if not distressed, that in a matter of 10 days, which would delay our trip to Cuzco, would be fighting Kinti next.
We decided to go to the hot springs to have a bath since we were in the Rupha Yaku, bone Aguas Calientes. Kinti also decided that we would leave early at dawn the next day, returned to swim in these cool pools of hot water and medicines. It was incredible contrast dive into these warm waters, amid a very cold, so we had to keep the body submerged and only the neck out to keep from dying of cold. At 50 meters flowed a river with icy water. But the warm waters of the pools came from inside the mountain, and I appeared to be no justifying volcano near the heat of these hot springs.
We woke at dawn and we headed to Cuzco. Kinti knew well the way in which we move initially mounted two mules alone for nearly two and a half days, as the road became very tortuous rained a lot so we could fall down with mules and all. Now he had to leave the animals and begin to tread carefully through this forest species but browed mountain, which in parts was not as difficult to walk. We had walked another five days, I enjoy the breathtaking views of landscapes, mountains, plants, amazing sunrises with the whisper of birds, and also the apotheosis sunsets peaceful. Kinti that was always few feet in front of me stopped and waited for me to catch up, and he said Purik, - so far we have been concerned only the way to move forward without hurting, but from now on we should be aware that We will find a group of warriors who never go alone Chancas.
The two we loaded a sort of shoulder bags that were actually woven bags and a very well made, where besides load some groceries, took a belt axes and each a large machete that was in the dairy Kinti which had sharpened as the While you could easily peel up a melon. After he said alert me know a way to save up to two days away-And what is that way? I asked, to which he replied with a smirk he answered very loose bones - it's easy, and cross the mountain pass to the other side using a rope suspension bridges, that while no one uses them for being somewhat neglected we will use given the rush to get there fast to Cuzco.
When my brain process what he had just heard, my body could not stop shaking, realizing that walk through tables with rope tied in a suspension bridge that swayed in the wind, at least 900 meters high, and I suffered from dizziness by height
I turned pale, and wonder-Kinti? Purik, you feel good? I replied that I was just a little tired and that's why I was sitting on the floor, but the truth is that the task was terrified that I was coming. And I showed Kinty pointing with his outstretched arm suspension bridge, which I saw him with suspicion if it was worth risking your life to win only about 60 hours, but I had no other purpose but to follow because he knew what Kinti I did and the truth that I trusted for his drive and knowledge. He noticed my distress and encouraged me saying-we Purik, do not worry I know what I do and I'll help you through. Then take the opportunity to tell you that the reality is that I was peeling of fear of crossing that bridge by my horror at the height. Kinti burst out laughing, and could not believe what I was telling way to convince him to forget about this crazy idea, and then  he grabbed her arms and looking Purik he said, sorry, but I must get to Cuzco before the  contacted allies come before me, and Cusi Yupanqui creates more enemies coming-do you understand now friend? Of course you can give up and go back if you want, but I ve seen in certain skills that will be of benefit to my people. And I add, I will help you cross it, and you'll get this chullo gourds with which you  cover eyes and I will be who will guide you step lest we fall into false and the two, so I always just  look heaven and you looked forward and never look down. I said-Kinti,  I cannot cross it without you and hoped that we will, because I think that the strong will and our common challenges to both. I kept thinking about what I had seen in my qualities to consider myself useful for your purposes, perhaps later would know. In addition to war or fighting skills was a novice, and my high school in a military school, very little would help. So I said to myself-Purik. This man is a Amauta, - follow it without fear.
Last about another hour we had this extraordinary and fearful rope bridge with small wooden tables all tied steps way. In a moment like a flash of a camera I saw in my mind the great bridge of Sydney, on the sea built a century ago, with steel and iron, of many tons, to join two sections of the city, and through which the train and many vehicles. But this bridge linking two mountains no less, perhaps built in the 15th century, also hanging, how could they do? I think his secret is hidden in the history of this great empire, and I know that we cannot find it. And unless they think these "historians" who make television documentaries, which often would have us believe their inventions or fantasies as realities.
As said Kinti,  the chullo gave me, I made sure that my sandals were clean of mud, and I began to pray that my Lord will take care of a fatal fall. Kinti entered first with the experience of having done it before. I followed him grasping for balance, but leaving it more or less free, so that I could guide, plus I had noticed that the footprints should be firm and the center of the tables so that the weight and pressure our bodies maintain the bridge in a parallel position, plus our walk had to be set, slow and smooth, to cross it in 45 minutes, and ended  he warm me that I do not trust the ropes that serve as handrails, because they are not in good condition, so suggested that will pull grab some before but not pull on them hard. What I said with intension of encouragement and help, actually made me more nervous, but he did not notice because I prayed more intensely and reassure me.
I walked like I had told Kinti not disturb it and always on, and I watch  my footsteps to follow with his eyes only ahead, and so we moved forward, pausing, because the suspension bridge swayed by the wind and our weight. And every time I stepped on the table and took a step forward, I felt it would be my last step, but there I was. At step tables Kinti responded well, but my step always seemed they were going to lose, and it did twice in the tables broke and fell to the bottom of the valley. In the two times I did as he said and Kinti not empty because I went to trod as testing only if the woods were well and then take the step edge. It had been an hour and we were only halfway through me that I did not dare to go faster by height phobia, but I lacked desire not to run and end this ordeal.
To finish it began to rain, and I told Kinti-mate until I came here, so go your way and wish you well. I strongly Kinti or we cry together or I'm staying here also, and soon we will fall off the cliff if we do not move now NOW! Water will help dry the ropes that are better to stretch without breaking, please believe me Purik!
Respond to her words and renew again walk through the tables and grabbed me the ropes of the railing and the two accelerated a little step and finally arrived at the end of the bridge, but there still had to walk very carefully because there was only a large rock over five feet wide and five feet long, with cliffs on both sides
Here again I also thought it was my last day, but Kinti grabbed me and we go to the other side of the mountain. Closer to home we hugged very safe and happy, and she said Kinti Purik your courage you have shown me and wants me to go to Cuzco, because anyone who suffers from vertigo by height as you may have done this. Do not answer anything and just gave him a handshake and relax knowing that I would not return here but by no means use again this crazy bridge.
Kinti he said for certain that some groups of chancas we must have seen us, but we never reached so we crossed into this other mountain - and now if we are close to the city of Cuzco.
As we reached the outskirts of town we noticed that even the Chancas had not yet fallen from the hills surrounding the town to attack. Kinti was eager to see aCusi Yupanqui, to tell him that he had requested the help successful outcome, and coming to the aid of the manors of Yucay warriors and Calca, also came and Guayamarcas Ayamarcas were already allies after many rivalries in the past; n a group came also warrior near Aguas Calientes, and finally came many people from the villages in the area of
​​the Urubamba River, and many men of the heights of the same place.
And this strategy is that everyone would arrive in the course of the night, to be ready to fight if the morning attack chancas decide.
We went to the house that had surrounded Cusi Yupanqui his guards and military advisers, and went through a place outside of town where they had carved boulders, and the most interesting was limestone, cut into gradients and with a projection as the pedestal of a statue with the figure of an animal. We also passed by a long aqueduct built by indigenous communities, and also crossed the incredible distribution of water lines outside. Reflect for a moment that the word aqueduct as we know it originated in the ancient Roman Empire, Aquaeductus (Aqvaedvctvs) and was as usual with that designated a tube that will transport water, no matter whether it was through a channel, a bridge, a gallery or a pipe. But here was outdoors.

We arrived at the building where Cusi Yupanqui organized resistance, and people to see their way Kinti him to enter the house and I as intrusive. He sent word that Kinti wanted to see him, and told him to wait a moment. Actually, it took a while, and while we waited Kinti Purik he said look, your immediate work will you gather all the help of warriors and men will field tonight, to be the second front in the resistance, since the front will be our warriors. You have to receive and house where it designates Cusi after talking with us, with us? I clarified. If you answered that you are already part of our allies, so far you have come from, what I'm smiling on the inside. That appeared Cusi Yupanqui. Comes  surrounded by his guards and advisers, was of medium height, typical Andean, not very refined appearance, and he looked anxious because not stop moving, no government experience, and he looked more like a military leader as the Inca that it would be defeated if the Chanca. Just spoke with Kinti ignoring me to intrude.
Kinti communicated to the specific location where all forces would house help. And Cuzco was not a crowded city Tawantinsuyo At the height must have been between 225 to 300 thousand inhabitants. So I just hoped to participate in the fight just several thousand.
As Kinty I ordered, I received all delegations which many had arrived early and others arrived at sunset. Then all moved into the center of the city, hidden in the houses of the neighborhood, as to go unnoticed.
Very early the next day, the attack was swift and Chancas  come down the hill towards the city center and as ordered Cusi Yupanqui, the invaders clashed first with a front men highly trained warriors, with the advantage to be waiting well armed with axes, spears and machetes, so that in his first attempt to penetrate the center, fell dead and wounded as 300 Indians Chancas and died about 50 local warriors. This great fight almost hard to noon in chancas survivors escaped and returned to their camp.
Meanwhile auxiliary forces remained hidden support to defend at the right time. As the geography surrounding the Cuzco was favorable, the Chancas had to return by the same hill or risk advancing along the waste ground, and easily blocked. As was just an observation attack and what they did before they retired to their camp, now if Cusco forces awaited the great attack with all the strength that chancas disposal. And again at dawn, Chancas attacked a second time, and again by the same hill, but now if attacked with all its contingent of several thousand, and the fight was very bloody and ferocious because it was a melee fight. The Cuzco could not prevent from entering Chancas almost to the narrow streets of the city, and while still fighting the invaders outside the city, Cusi Yupanqui  ordered to support forces that were in a number of 1, 900 people well armed, came out to defend the city. The resistance went house to house. The Chancas were surprised to find more warriors and the residents. Thus Cusi Yupanqui attacked them in front and went into the streets when they were locked, so that they were attacked on two fronts. There were fierce encounters all neighborhoods especially in the neighborhood whose residents were defending Choccoscochona exemplary, also a courageous woman named Chañan Curycoca n led the withdrawal of Chancas around their neighborhood. Eventually these two fronts became four fronts, and to the fury of the Incas had to back the invaders, lying on the ground leaving the idols and banners and Ancovilca Uscovilca. The pampa Icho Chancas fled, being pursued by Cuzco. He won the battle.
Yupanqui ordered drums make patches for the bellies of Chancas and sidewalks drum and flutes of his bones.
Then Yucay Yupanqui went in search of his father taking him the present war, but were rejected and trampled by Huira cocha, who would have preferred Urco out the victor against the Chanca.
On his return to Cuzco, Kinti and I were in the middle of the town square watching Cusi Inca Yupanqui was proclaimed, changing its name to Pachacutec, meaning upheaval or remove the world. His first order was to Inca Urco was barred from entering the city, and even saw it as his own wife left him to live with Pachacutec.
I. Purik, in the grandeur of the ceremony, think about the name chosen by Cusi Yupanqui, and look Kinty and in my mind I said if you knew this guy friend like change, improved and expanded this great empire, and turned out to be the name chosen a harbinger of the future work I do, and that you will enjoy in your life.
Now came the end for me, so after the ceremony it burn and I said it is time for me to return, because surely I need in my house, but he begged me to stay in a home for a few days to talk about positive issues, cultural, and spiritual, that if they are worth and not wars and tragedies.
I could not resist accepting such an invitation, and although the little word I utter subjugation-spiritual-I also remembered my promise given as a condition of my trip, not to interfere in their culture, because the story is ongoing and the course of events.

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